1.1 Describe how to establish respectful, professional relationships with children and young people
Listening is a very important way in which to establish a respectful and professional relationship with a child. By listening, without interruption, to what the child has to say shows them that you are interested in their views and encourages them to interact with you. It is very important when talking or listening to a child that you maintain eye contact, concentrate on what they are saying and physically lower yourself to their level. This shows the child respect and that you consider them as an equal. Finding out about some of their interests and hobbies will also show them that you are really interested. You should make an effort to learn all children’s names, how to spell them and how to pronounce them. A way of showing fairness is allowing a child to explain their version of events. This shows that you are ready to listen. However, it is important to be consistent in situations, if two children break the same rule it would be unfair to punish one and not the other, this would result in lack of respect from the children. Being polite not only shows respect but as an adult being polite is a good role model for the children. Children always have stories to tell and being interested and polite shows them that you have listened to them. Children copy the behaviour of adults, if you are polite, honest, fair and respectful to children there is more chance that they will act the same.

1.2 Describe with examples how to behave appropriately for a child or young person’s stage of development
Children need adults to teach, guide, and support them as they grow and learn. Teacher play an important role in guiding children’s behaviour in positive, supportive, and age-appropriate ways. The most appropriate ways to guide behaviour are different at different ages, depending on their developmental abilities and needs. For example, two-year-olds have limited understanding and need a lot of redirection, but five-year-olds can learn to be good problem solvers. Effective guidance strategies also depend on the individual child’s personality. Guidance is much more effective when you talk to children at their eye level. Positive body language can include a smile, thumbs up, high-five, pat on the back, etc. Here are some age /development technique.

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4-7 years
. Use language children will understand.

. Listen carefully, show children you are concentrating and show interest.

. Use eye contact.

.  At this age, teach them by saying “please” and “thank you” regularly and need just the occasional reminder.

. Ensure you get down to their level so that you re not towering over them as this can be very intimidating for children.

.Be patient, you may need to explain things more than once. For example: sometime children do not understand the task at once, you need to demonstrate or make to the task easy to understand.
. Have a friendly approach, smile, listen and generally be easy to talk to.

8-11 years
. Encourage to self-help and independence.

. Show patience and understanding.

. Give explanations to back up what are you saying.

. Give them responsibility. For example: ask them to tidy up the classroom after the activity done or ask to put their books back after reading or ask to hang their coats on the pegs.

. Offer them opportunity to express themselves for example role play, modelling, painting, drawing writing etc.

12-16 years
. Discus issues as you would with another adult.

. Use humour appropriately.

. Empower them to express their opinion freely.

. Be symapathetic and show empathy.

. At this age all students have different personalities and are individual so respect this and support them in being who they are in order for them to grow in to confident, respectful people.

1.3 Describe how to deal with disagreements between children and young people
Dealing with disagreements with children can be tough. Young children get very emotional and often start crying. Especially, children in infant years start fighting over the smallest thing like who gets which toy in the playground. I find that the best way to deal with disagreements is by being calm and getting the children to explain what happened. Then, I explain the difference between right and wrong. Try to make them understand if they were put in the same position, how they would feel and get them to apologise. For example, during art class, when sharing some colours, some children don’t have the patience to wait for their turn. This causes disagreements between the children. So, I try to explain to them that they should be patient and wait for their turn.
Whereas with young people you need to have a different strategy in order to deal with disagreements. They are more independent and have their individual personalities. This means that they will clash more. They should be encouraged to discuss the issue and come to an agreement. Learning to accept others views and opinions and to respect this. We should give young people the opportunity to sort out the issues themselves and step in only when needed. I feel when dealing with young people, I need to be able to listen to them, let them explain the issue before giving them any view. If the matter is discussed, they will realise for themselves what is the right answer.

1.4 Describe how own behaviour could: a) promote effective interactions with children and young people b) impact negatively on interactions with children and young people
Children always look up to adults and will take lead from adults around them. If we show good behaviour, then they will take that in. We have to follow the guidelines and rules, be polite and respectful towards other, if the teacher says something to do then you have to do it. Children are watching and listening. The teacher is one of the child’s role models, it is very important for a teacher to have qualities which impress the child and the qualities which he can copy and become good. For example, swearing in front of your children teaches them that bad language is appropriate. The teacher who seemed to be angry and unhappy put negative impact on children and young people. If we cannot listen and respect the class teacher, then it makes a negative impact on children and young people. We can’t tell them to do something when we do not do it ourselves. When a student sees a particular teacher has few favourite students, then he will think he is not as important. This can dishearten the student and he may take it negatively.
2.1 Describe how to establish respectful, professional relationship with adults
Communicating positively with colleagues is an important part in helping build a strong and trusting relationship with each other. To maintain close relationships with the other practitioners will help to inform each other of any worries or concerns that one of you may have regarding a child. I share my views and concerns about pupil’s learning and support to each other team member so that they are able to provide support to those pupils efficiently. When I experience positive feedback, I share it to other team members so that they are encouraged and aware of dealing with such situations. I always remain calm, non-judgemental and respect others feedback. If I have any advice, I will offer them without hurting their feelings. I always respect and acknowledge other team members opinions. As each of us has own qualities and ways of handling things, it is vital that I respect other’s opinions so that in turn they respect my opinions. Eventually, we maintain a good relationship among us.

2.2 Describe the importance of adult relationship as a role models for children and young people
A role model is always fair at all times and will always say what she means. She will carry out the correct procedures and reward the children if they behave well. She will respect the children’s ideas and give time to them, listening to their problems. Children will appreciate it and their self-esteem will grow. As children copy the behaviour of adults, the positive behaviour will reflect on them. We spend a lot of time with the children and our work with children has a big impact on their social and emotional progression. Seeing the behaviour of adults affects children’s own behaviour and how they deal with others. If I say, ‘thank you’ and ‘please’ often they may also start saying that. If I speak kindly to them at all times and remain calm in all situations, children will copy our behaviour too. Therefor we should be positive role models for the children.

3.1 Describe how communication with children and young people differs across different age rangers and stages of development
One must be able to communicate effectively with children and young people to build effective relationships with them. One should know the stages of language development which are expected of children so that one will know what to expect of children at different ages. If one is working with special needs pupils, This may mean that methods of communication are different from those used with other children. This may be because of speech and language difficulties or because the child is hearing impaired and needs to use sign language. Sign language is a form of communication which is used with children who have special educational needs.

Whether one is working with a child who is just starting school or with an older child, one will need to think about the best ways of communicating effectively.

Communication: 0-3 years: This is the age where children are just starting to learn about who they are, what they look like, where they are from. They are experimenting with play and learning through role play, despite the fact that they might not be able to understand you. Babies will try to communicate through crying, starting to smile and babbling. They will start to establish eye-contact with adults. During these years children will begin to learn how to communicate, say first words, and put words together to make a sentence.
3-7 years: At this age children will start to develop these identities that they have been learning about. They will start to develop their vocabulary rapidly. At this stage, child will enjoy simple and repetitive rhymes. They will begin to use familiar phrases and words that they hear being used, they will ask a lot of questions and still look for the approval of an adult.
7-12 years: By the time they reach this age most children will be more confident with using language verbally and their communicational skills will be a lot better. They will start to use more and more vocabulary and the structure of their language may become more complex. As children develop their language skills, they will be able to use language according to situations.

12-18: At this age young people will have now developed their communicational skills to a higher level and have their own preferred style in which they like to communicate. They are also developing more emotionally and socially and going from that transitional period of child to young person to teenager. According to Burnham “You should adapt the way you communicate according to their individual needs”. With younger children the way in which you communicate will be more expressional and you find will that the tone of your voice will be a higher pitch than usual.

Following are the features of communication
Verbal and non-verbal behaviour: eg form, pitch, volume, tone, turn-taking, questioning skills, reflective listening, pausing, silence; eye contact, facial expression, verbal interactions with babies, body movement, posture, gesture, muscle tension, touch, proximity and orientation, culture difference; importance of these features when interacting with children and adults
Listening skills: active listening to achieve understanding; reflecting and paraphrasing other’s expression to check understanding; the role of memory in active listening
Communication difficulties: language differences eg signed languages, sensory difficulties, emotional distress; barriers in the environment eg noise, room layout, lighting; barriers to understanding eg assumptions, cultural differences, belief systems, stereotypes; adapting communication for those with communication difficulties
3.2 Describe the main differences between communicating with adults and communicating with young children
When communicating with adults we tend to use a more serious and formal way to communicate, unlike when we are communicating with children and young people. This is because we have to adapt our vocabulary when speaking with children. So that they understand what you are saying or asking of them. There are lots of different types of communication types, positive and negative, verbal and non-verbal communication.

We adapt our type of communication when speaking with adult than when speaking with children. Children may not understand some types of communication, such as non-verbal, they may become distressed and confused because they don’t understand. A child needs clear instruction, we must remember to use vocabulary that can be understood by the child, a calm tone and body language that will not send mixed messages. Children are ‘social learners’ and learn by copying other people, so any adults working with them should model good communication, both speaking and listening, so that children will learn from them. Children need to know that they are being listened to and heard. This helps them to build up a rapport and trust with adults and promotes better relationships.

3.3 Identify examples of communication difficulties that may exist
Sometimes we come across parents or children who do not speak any English at all or English is not their first language. They should not be excluded from information because of their language. We should give them enough time when we communicate with them. If they don’t understand what we are trying to say we should be calm and repeat what we have said. We should speak in clear language and include body language and gestures.
Sometimes we talk to someone with a disability. They will find it difficult to understand us. This could be due to a hearing impairment or autism etc. Other opportunities of communication should be provided such as sign language and gestures. People who are blind might not see our gestures and they might miss out information. Some others may have learning difficulties. They may become frustrated and feel isolated. We must make an effort to understand them. We should be patient and find possible ways of ensuring that they are included. When people are stressed communication can be misunderstood. We need to be calm and patient with the person.Communication includes verbal and non-verbal communication. We need to be able to control facial expressions and maintain eye contact. As a Teaching assistant it is essential that we constantly develop our communication skills and learn how to speak with children, young people and adults.
3.4 Describe how to adapt communication to meet different communication needs
When communicating with others it is important to consider the context in which you are working. You will need to adapt the way you communicate in different situations. It is likely that you will do this automatically without even realising you are doing it – for example, you should use more formal language and behaviour whilst in a meeting or discussing matters with a senior member of staff. The schools will have a range of different types of planned communication with other adults – for example staff meetings, parents evening, target setting days as well as more informal communication. However, the talking is not the only way in which we communicate.   It happens through the way we respond to others, for example, how quickly we respond to an email or phone message, how attentive we are when speaking to someone, how we dress. You may ?nd that the non-verbal forms of communication can be an issue if they are misread by others. 
3.5 Describe how to deal with disagreements between:
a) the practitioner and young children and young people b) the practitioner and other adults
If I was to have a disagreement with a child, for example if a child was misbehaving and not listening my instructions and answering me back I would gain eye contact with the child, get down to his level and calmly explain what I am asking the child to do clearly stating the main points. I would then ask why he is not willing to listen and what it was that is bothering him, and he is behaving like this. If he still continues with this behaviour. I would then state to the child that I am no longer going to discuss this matter any further until he is calmed down and I well let him to think about his behaviour. After this I would then inform the class teacher of the incident.
If I was to have a disagreement with other adults/ staff members I would try my best to solve the situation quickly and effectively as it could lead to more complications. If I needed to I would ask another member of staff to be there to act as a middle person to ensure that it was solved in a professional and friendly manner.

Or if I face any problem among my team members/colleague whether it is personal or work related and I cannot resolve it among ourselves, then I will report it to my team leader who has the authority and capability to reach a resolution. She will deal with the situation in the appropriate manner.

4.1 Identify relevant legal requirements and procedures covering confidentiality, data protection and the disclosure of information
Please see my school’s data protection policy. I have attached it at the back.

4.2 Describe the importantce of reassuring children, young people and adults of the confidentially of shared information and the limit of this.

Although the school and its staff is bound by law to handle information about children in a confidential way and share it only with relevant and responsible people, pupils and adults have to reassured that sensitive information will not be misused. Children and parents will see that they can trust the teacher and teaching assistant with their confidential details, if the teaching staff are aware of the sensitivity of this information and the damage it can cause if it’s misused. They must never pass on information acquired at work in casual conversations within or outside school. When you are asked a question that concerns confidential information about a pupil and you are in doubt whether you should answer it, it is better to check with the line manager before saying anything. Also, even if you are a parent at the school as well as a member of the teaching staff, you are in a role of professional trust and not allowed to share information about other pupils in casual conversations with the other parents.

Furthermore, I have attached my school privacy note for pupils and parent at the back.

4.3 Identify the kinds of situations when confidentiality protocols must be breached
Adults who work with children and young people will come to know most of the personal information like date of birth, address and contact details and also sensitive information like behavioural issues, some medical information, family background, whether parents are divorcing and so on.   It is the responsibility of the adult to keep this information confidential. They must protect the identity of the child they work with and that of their families and carers. They must do everything in their power to protect the privacy of every child and adult.This can be done by keeping their personal information safe and secure. They can pass it on those who have authorised and legitimate reason to have the information only after they have permission from their parents and carers. This involves parents signing a consent form. If parents refuse permission, then the school would not able to pass on the information even if it involves a behavioural specialist working with a child who has special needs.There is a legislation to protect this right and there are severe consequences for those who breach it. However, there are certain circumstances in which an adult can pass on the information to the relevant authority without permission.   If you become aware of information which led you to a genuine suspicion that a child is being abused at home, then it would it be right for the responsible adult to pass on the information. The general rule is that if you believe a child to be at a significant risk of harm then you should pass on personal information to those who would be able to prevent harm. Every setting will have policies and procedures that must be followed in these circumstances. Sometimes private and personal information needs to be shared so that people can access services. In some circumstances disclosure of personal information is required by law.

There are situations when confidential information has to be shared. If it is in connection with a child, parental consent should be given unless a child’s safety is at risk. Here are some situations where confidential information may have to be passed on:
a)if a child needs additional support from other professionals
b)if a child is suspected to be in a situation that risks their safety
c)if an adult has disclosed information that may raise concerns over their ability to carry out daily duties in your setting
d)if an outside body such as Ofsted requests to see an adult’s or child’s records
furthermore, please see HPS data breached policy at the back.

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