-162560-313690-1662430-3529330 2934970267335ETHNICITY OF ETHNICITY OF 2177415281305TORAJA TORAJA PREPARED BY 1 NUR FATIHAH BINTI SAINUDIN 500866 2 NURUL SYAHIRAH BITNI ABDUL LATIF 501063 3 AINS QISTINA AINA BINTI AHMAD ZAMIN 501016 4 SITI RAZAN NAJIHAH BINTI SUHAIMI 500922 5 MOHAMMAD EDDIE LOH BIN SUFFIAN LOH 500981 -4538980130175 HISTORY Toraja Land is placed 328KM northern part of the South Sulawesi Province

-162560-313690-1662430-3529330
2934970267335ETHNICITY OF
ETHNICITY OF

2177415281305TORAJA
TORAJA

PREPARED BY 1 NUR FATIHAH BINTI SAINUDIN 500866
2 NURUL SYAHIRAH BITNI ABDUL LATIF 501063
3 AINS QISTINA AINA BINTI AHMAD ZAMIN 501016
4 SITI RAZAN NAJIHAH BINTI SUHAIMI 500922
5 MOHAMMAD EDDIE LOH BIN SUFFIAN LOH 500981
-4538980130175
HISTORY

Toraja Land is placed 328KM northern part of the South Sulawesi Province. Situated between Latimojong Mountain vary (from Mount Rantemario to Mount Rante Kambola) till the Mount of Sesean in north of Toraja Land. The one-of-a-kind structure of Torajan residence has its very own structure form. Traditional Toraja house are shaped like a boat and the two ends are shaped like the bow. The residence of Torajan is a compound structures consist of normal homes (Tongkonan) and rice storage buildings (Lumbung Padi). The constructing are sculpted with adorns of more than a few shapes. The ornament is painted with typical shade dominated with the black and crimson colour. All of them create the aesthetic price of the constructing of Torajan houses.

Demography
Toraja is a title which is given by using the Bugis people as a nickname for peoples of the mountainous areas of the northern phase of the south peninsula, which have remained remoted until pretty recently. The native religion of the Torajan People is megalithic and animistic, and is characterised via animal sacrifices, ostentatious funeral rites and huge communal feasts. The Toraja People solely started to lose trust in their native religion after 1909, when Protestant missionaries arrived in the wake of the Dutch colonizers. Nowadays, roughly 60% of the Torajan are Christian, and 10% are Muslim; the rest preserve in some measure to their native religion. But, anything their spiritual belief, it is their ancestral home, their ‘house of origin’, the extremely good “Banua Toraja” with its extraordinary and unique constructions, that is the cultural center of attention for each TorajaThis residence of origin is additionally recognised as a Tongkonan, a name derived from the Toraja word for ‘to sit’; it literally skill the vicinity the place family individuals meet – to discuss necessary affairs, to take part in ceremonies and to make arrangements for the refurbishment of the house.

The Toraja are divided up geographically into exceptional groups, the most vital of which are the Mamasa, who are centred round the remoted Kalumpang valley, and the Sa’dan of the southern Toraja lands. There have never been any strong, lasting political groupings within the Toraja. The Sa’dan area, with its market towns of Makale and Rantepao, is regarded as Tana Toraja. Good roads now attain Tana Toraja from Makassar or formerly recognized as Ujung Pandang, the capital of Sulawesi, bringing a large seasonal inflow of overseas vacationers who, whilst injecting cash into the nearby economy, have not yet had tons lasting affect on nearby people’s lives.

ECONOMY
SUBSISTENCE AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES
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The Torajan economy used to be primarily based on agriculture. Rice, grown in terraced paddies, is planted and harvested by way of hand .Single metal-blade plows drawn by water buffalo or men,are nevertheless in use. Toraja farmers additionally grow maize, cassava, chilies, beans, yams, and potatoes. Cash crops consist of espresso and cloves. The Toraja additionally collect snails, eels, and small fish from unplanted wet-rice fields. Domestic animals encompass pigs, chickens, and water buffalo, which are sacrificed on ritual events .The rich are defined with the aid of how many buffalos they own.Lamd can even be bought with buffalos .Toraja coffee is justifiably well-known .Rich arabicas are grown in misty mountains and fetch very high prices
INDUSTRIAL ARTS
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A wide variety of Toraja supplement their income by way of carving for traditional or touristic purposes. Certain villages are acknowledged to specialize in specific crafts: knife forging ,pottery making, mat making and hat plaiting.

TRADE

Most villages have a couple of tiny shops that may additionally sell solely two or three items like cigarettes, sweets, instant noodles and soap.Women bring fruit and veggies to sell at the market. Men carry livestock, palm wine, hand-forged knives, or carvings. Full-time market providers have a tendency to be Buginese or from Duri, rather than Toraja.

DIVISION OF LABOR
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Both men and female fish and tend the fields. Men and youngsters care for water buffalo, whilst female generally feed the pigs. Women are occupied with the standard home tasks, even though guys frequently cook meat and tend babies.

LAND TENURE
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Although faraway mountain slopes are still being transformed into new terraced wet-rice fields, changes in agricultural technology have been minimal. Steady populace increase has resulted in land shortage. Rice fields are particularly prized and the majority of court cases in Tana Toraja involve land-tenure disputes. By the 1960s land shortage and restricted local financial opportunities began to pressure many Toraja to seek for wage labor away from the homeland. Today many Toraja work in a variety of expert and blue-collar jobs in Indonesian cities. Still others work for lumber and oil organizations as far away as IrianJaya, Kalimantan, or Malaysia.-4232910-12259310LANGUANGE
The ethnic Toraja language is dominant in Tana Toraja with the major language as the Sa’dan Toraja. Although the national Indonesian languange is the authentic language and is spoken in the community, all elementary schools in Tana Toraja teach Toraja language.

Languange varities of Toraja including Kalumpang, Mamasa, Tae, Talondo, Toala, and Toraja-Sa’dan, belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language from the Austronesian family. At the outset, the isolated geographical nature of Tana Toraja formed many dialects between the Toraja languages themselves. After the formal administration of Tana Toraja, some Toraja dialects have been influenced through otherlanguages via the transmigration program, brought on the grounds that the colonialism period, and it has been a important element in the linguistic variety of Toraja languages.

A outstanding attribute of Toraja language is the thought of grief. The significance of loss of life ceremony in Toraja tradition has characterised their languages to express intricate stages of grief and mourning. The Toraja language carries many terms referring to sadness, longing, depression, and intellectual pain. Giving a clear expression of the psychological and bodilyeffect of loss is a catharsis and every now and then lessens the ache of grief itself. 
Dialects in Torajan languages have been affected with the aid of influences from different languages. For example, Rongkong and Bua dialects of Tae’ language are a product of mixing Bugis, Tae’ and Java languages. This used to be prompted with the aid of the transmigration program that was onceproposed in the colonialism generation through the Dutch East India.

WEDDING
Marriage for Toraja people should be with the blessing of both pairs of parents, if it is not blessed then the married pair will be alienated or not recognized as a child to their family. In ancient times marriage is not as it is now, men and women are now allowed to interact and parents and large families are in control in the process of matchmaking. Matchmaking or marriage begins with a betel delivery from the male family to the prospective bride’s family. This is a first step to find out if there is a way to proceed to the next level or not. The male family will send a trusted person to bring betel to a woman’s house. When it is well received it means that the male family can continue with the application.

At the time of the proposed mention of compensation whose value will also be mentioned at the official ceremony of marriage. The payment is assessed by buffalo. In the Toraja custom of marriage there is no mention of the dowry, unless the woman is married to a man whose parents do not agree. The man must pay the dowry which consists of:
1. For women group 1-12 pairs of buffalo.
2. Female class of 1-3 tails of oxakaka buffalo.
3. Female servant class 1 buffalo.

The wedding ceremony in Toraja is very simple, unlike what the Bugis or Makassar do. The entire wedding ceremony lasts for a few days. Toraja customs and ceremonies consist of three levels, although it is also not binding because it all depends on the ability and desire of both parties prospective bride.

Wedding with Rompo Bobo Bannang ceremony.

Wedding with custom Rompo Bobo Bannang is a straightforward wedding ceremony paring. Envoys from the men will submit an application, if approved then delivered the time of their arrival. The time of the groom’s arrival is usually at night. When the appointed time arrived, came a group of bridegroom consisting of a groom with 2 or 4 followers who climbed up the house. They will get questions from parents of the bride in Toraja: To lendu konikan roomika batuto lempong kaboangian rokomiko (Did you stop by the rain or get stuck in the night?)
Then answered by one of the groom’s representatives with: Toeroka lendu to konronan batu toeroki lempang to kabuangin what lamu ulu ‘rukon olukna rompo kopa loma luntun roku bicarana pasuelle allo. (We did not stop because of rain, but we will come to hold marriage according to the rules of the ancestors to our ancestors). The woman’s parents opened the door and the groom and his entourage went upstairs. They were then fed and drunk. After the meal, the guests returned home while the groom stayed at the bride’s house. With this the official wedding ceremony in Bobo Bannang is considered completed.

Wedding with KaroEng Rompo ceremony.

The marriage with the KaroEng Rompo ceremony is almost the same as the Rompo Bobo ceremony, there is only a little extra on the details of its implementation. The ceremony begins with an application that is marked by a messenger of a man carrying betel. If the application is accepted then the female family will determine the wedding day.

On the agreed day, the groom will come with a group of companions which are all men consisting of relatives and friends. Arriving in the yard of the house, this procession will be welcomed by the family of the bride with the same welcome and question and answer with the Rompo Bobong ceremony. Once completed then the group of men will be welcome to sit in the barn.

When night comes, the groom’s entourage will be invited up to the top of the house. There they were fed and drunk. After eating and drinking, the woman’s parents will read the law of marriage. In Toraja custom, if something happens to cancel the marriage or divorce then the guilty party must pay a fine or called Kapa according to its level. The fines are valued with buffalo. After the reading of the marriage law, the groom’s group will leave the bride’s house leaving the bridegroom alone. With this the officially ceremony Rampo KaroEng considered completed.

Wedding with Rompo Allo ceremony.

The wedding with the Rompo Allo ceremony is the third level ceremony of the Toraja marriage. This wedding ceremony lasts several days with a larger ceremony. This ceremony is usually performed only by those of the nobility class.

The Ceremony begins with paingka kada or investigation of the prospective bride. This investigation was conducted to find out whether the prospective bridegroom has not been proposed or if there is an opportunity for the prospective groom to proposed marriage. If the investigation has been completed and it turns out that the targeted woman is free and his family is pleased to receive the man, then next to be done is umbaa food or apply officially. Pinangan marked with betel pinang delivered messengers from the prospective groom to the prospective parent of the bride. Introduction betel nut is made up of several women and men dressed in custom.

Once the proposal is received, the messenger of the groom will come again to talk about the date for the wedding ceremony. After the wedding day is agreed then both parties will make preparations. The bride’s family will cut a pig as a gesture to be presented at the wedding ceremony ceremony. A pig is also cut to the inauguration of a traditional plate (dulang). This tray lined up as many as 8-12 pieces. Prepared before the wedding party arrived. On the agreed day, a group of men will arrive at 7 pm. The number of entourage is unlimited, consisting of relatives and friends. This ceremony is called Topasulau or bringing the groom, while his own entourage is called Topasolan.

The entourage is sequential from the front guides, then the firewood, some men, the groom, the accompanist and often the dancers of Paburak dancing along the way. There are abstinences prevailing in this procession, among which members of the group should not touch each other at run time. If their convoy encounters snakes or centipedes then they must return and should not continue the journey. Arriving at home the bride, the entourage will initially be told to wait in the barn or other open places to be served betel nut. After that the entourage will be invited up to the top of the house and take the place that has been determined. The bride will come out of the sombung (certain rooms already provided) and sit side by side with the groom flanked by each priest.

After sitting face-to-face then began the meal ceremony together. The bride and groom will eat from the same chamber that has been filled with the book leso (pig hind legs). Eat together as a wedding inauguration procession followed by dialogue kapa looted between the imams of both parties. Once completed the entourage of the groom will leave the bride’s house as well as a sign of the wedding ceremony. Three days after the wedding ceremony there was a return visit called pasule barasang to the groom’s house. The groom’s family will cut a pig for a banquet to the bride.

TORAJA WEDDING COUPLE
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FUNERAL IN TORAJA

The Tana Toraja is a regime of South Sulawesi in Indonesia, a beautiful rugged area that is home to an indigenous gathering known as the Torajans. For the Toraja individuals, life particularly rotates around death, however not in a sullen sense. For them, a memorial service is an awesome festival of life, much like a leaving party, and is an event in which the whole group of the perished, and every one of the individuals the town partake. Their old conventions include funerary traditions that have been honed over numerous hundreds of years and are known to be the most complex burial service customs on the planet.
The number of inhabitants in the Toraja is around 650,000, of which 450,000 still live in the regime of Tana Toraja (“Land of Toraja”). Most are Christian, others are Muslim, and a minority still hold the neighborhood convictions known as Aluk Todolo (“Way of the Ancestors”), which are most noticeable amid memorial service merriments and entombment traditions.
Prior to the twentieth century, Torajans lived in self-ruling towns, where they honed animism, the perspective that non-human substances, including creatures, plants, and regularly even lifeless things or wonders have an otherworldly essence. They were generally immaculate by the outside world until the point when Dutch ministers touched base to change over the Torajan highlanders to Christianity. All things considered, even those that take after different religions in Tana Toraja, still combine with regards to antiquated burial service traditions.
Amid their lives, the Tarajans work to a great degree difficult to gather riches. Be that as it may, not at all like different social orders, the Tarajans don’t spare their cash to give themselves a decent life, rather they put something aside for a decent send off in death. Truth be told, it is the excess of the burial service, not the wedding, which denotes a family’s status.
Memorial service functions are unfathomably critical to the Tarajans and are frequently held weeks, months, or even a very long time after the passing of a man to give the group of the expired time to collect enough cash for costs – a body isn’t
covered until the point when the assets have been raised.   Many individuals stray profoundly into the red with a specific end goal to hold a burial service and it isn’t exceptional for a young fellow, perplexed of being troubled by obligation, to put off or drop his marriage if a grandparent of the young lady he adores is mature enough beyond words The funerals are rambunctious issues including the entire town and customarily keep going for a considerable length of time or even weeks. In particular, a burial service fortifies the interminable bond between the living and the dead.

UNIQUE FUNERARY CUSTOM
When a Torajan dies, family contributors of the deceased are required to keep a collection of funeral ceremonies, acknowledged as Rambu Soloq, over many days. During this time, the deceased is no longer buried but is embalmed and saved in a common house under the equal roof with his or her family.  Until the funeral ceremonies are completed, the character is no longer regarded to be absolutely useless however simply struggling an illness. The lifeless relative is referred to easy as “a character who is sick” or “the one who is asleep”.  Remarkably, this could even closing numerousyears after death, relying on how lengthy it takes the family to elevatemoney.   During this time, the deceased family member is symbolically fed, cared for and taken out, and is very a whole lot a part of their relative’s lives.  Their ceremony begins when funeral visitors attend a buffalo-slaughtering field. Family contributors are required to slaughter buffaloes and pigs as they agree with that the spirit of the deceased will live peacefully thereafter, persevering with to herd the buffaloes that have come to be part of him or her. Before being sacrificed according to a strictly definedprocedure, the animals take part in trials of energy known as tedong silaga.
After the sacrifice, the meat is distributed to the funeral site visitors in accordance with visitors’ positions in the community, and the spirit of the deceased is additionally entitled to a portion of meat, recognizeddomestically as Aluk Todolo. The heads of the buffaloes are returned to what is locally regarded as puya (a site for the soul or spirit of the uselessperson) and their horns positioned in the front of the house of the kin. The more horns that decorate the the front of the house, the greater the popularity of the deceased. The body is no longer buried till the eleventh day of the ceremony, even though they are no longer technically buried – the closing resting place is in a cave up on the cliff. The soul of the deceased is thinking to linger aroundthe village till the funeral ceremony is completed, after which it starts its experience to the land of souls.

A wood-carved effigy known as tau tau, carved with the likeness of the useless individual is then placed in the balcony of the tomb to characterizethe lifeless and watch over their remains.  Unfortunately, so many tau tau effigies have been stolen to be offered to travelers that human beings have started out to hold them in their homes.

Wooden caskets hang from the cliffs
In one region, known as Ke’te’ kesu’, the dead are not placed in cliff-dug graves, but in wooden caskets hanging from the side of cliffs. The coffins are beautifully decorated with geometrical shapes, but over time the wood begins to rot and the bleached bones of the deceased often become exposed.

 A ‘Baby Tree’.

The smallest of the Toraja burial grounds are the “Baby Trees” where the tribe’s young are placed. If a child dies before he has started teething, the baby is wrapped in cloth and placed inside a hollowed out space within the trunk of a growing tree, and covered over with a palm fibre door.  The belief is that as the tree begins to heal, the child’s essence will become part of the tree. Dozens of babies may be interred within a single tree.

THE CEREMONY OF CORPSES

Family contributors accompany their deceased relative for the duration ofthe Ma’Nene ceremony. Every 12 months in August, a ritual referred to as Ma’Nene (The Ceremony of Cleaning Corpses) takes area in which the our bodies of the deceased are exhumed to be washed, groomed and dressed in new clothes. Damaged bins are constant or replaced.  The mummies are then walked around the village by using following a route of straight lines.  Following these straight traces is perhaps the most important part of the ceremony. According to the myth, these strains are related with Hyang, a non secular entity with supernatural power. As this entity solely go in straight lines, the soul of the deceased body have to observe the path of Hyang.

According to the historic Torajan faith system, the spirit of a dead characterhave to return to his village of origin. So if a character died on a journey, the family would go to the location of demise and accompany the deceased returned domestic with the aid of strolling them back to the village.  In the past, humans have been fearful to trip far, in case they died while they were away and were unable to return to their village.

TORAJA BELIEFS
In the Toraja myth, the ancestors of Torajan people came down from heaven using stairs, which were then used by the Torajans as a communication medium with Puang Matua, the Creator.  The cosmos, is divided into the upper world (heaven), the world of man (earth), and the underworld.  At first, heaven and earth were married, then there was a darkness, a separation, and finally the light.  The Torajans traditionally believe that death is not a sudden, abrupt event, but a gradual process toward Puya (the land of souls, or afterlife).

The Aluk Todolo belief system still very much governs the life of the society, demonstrated by Toraja cosmology, ceremonies, settlement arrangement, houses, decorations, the role of water buffalo, and of course, the funerary customs. According to UNESCO, the Torajan cosmology represents an ancient cosmology common to pre-state Southeast Asian communities which is now vanishing.

SOCIAL LIFE
FAMILY

Family is the essential social and political grouping in Torajan society. Each village is one extended family, the seat of which is the Tongkonan, a common Torajan house. Each Tongkonan has a name, which becomes the name of the village. The familial dons preserve village unity. Marriage between distant cousins (fourth cousins and beyond) is a frequent practice that strengthens kinship. Toraja society prohibits marriage between close cousins (up to and which include the 1/3 cousin) without for nobles, to stop the dispersal of property. Kinship is actively reciprocal, which means that the prolonged family helps every other farm, share buffalo rituals, and pay off debts Each individual belongs to both the mother’s and the father’s families, the only bilateral family line in Indonesia. Children, therefore, inherit family affiliation from each mother and father, which includes land and even household debts. Children’s names are given on the basis of kinship, and are typically chosen after dead relatives. Names of aunts, uncles and cousins are normally referred to in the names of mothers, fathers and siblings. Before the start of the formal administration of Toraja villages by using the Tana Toraja Regency, each Toraja village was autonomous. In a greater complicated situation, in which one Toraja family could no longer manage their troubles alone, several villages formed a group; sometimes, villages would unite against other villages. Relationship between families was expressed through blood, marriage, and shared ancestral homes (tongkonan), practically signed by means of the change of buffalo and pigs on ritual occasions. Such exchanges not solely built political and cultural ties between families however defined every person’s place in a social hierarchy: who poured palm wine, who wrapped a corpse and prepared offerings, where each individual should or could not sit, what dishes have to be used or avoided, and even what piece of meat constituted one’s share.

CLASS AFILIATION

In early Toraja society, family relationships were tied closely to social class. The structure of the caste of Torajan people according to Aluk are :Tana Bulaan (Tana = caste, Bulaan = gold) Nobles never marry lower class people. Moreover, if someone divorces his/her spouse, then he/she has to pay 24 buffaloes to the divorced his/her spouse.

Tana Bassi (Tana = caste, Bassi = iron) Lower than Tana Bulaan. A person has to pay 10 buffaloes to his/her divorced spouse..Tana Karurung (common people) a person has to pay 2 buffaloes to his/her divorced spouse..Tana Kuakua (slaves) there are still some people in certain areas having slaves to take care of their rice farm. The slaves are paid and given adequate food. In the past, slaves were not paid.

In general there were three strata: nobles, commoners, and slaves (slavery was abolished in 1909 by the Dutch East Indies government). Class was inherited through the mother. It was taboo, therefore, to marry “down” with a woman of lower class. On the other hand, marrying a woman of higher class could improve the status of the next generation. The nobility’s condescending attitude toward the commoners is still maintained today for reasons of family prestige.Nobles, who were believed to be direct descendants of the descended person from heaven, lived in Tongkonans, while commoners lived in less lavish houses (bamboo shacks called Banua). Slaves lived in small huts, which had to be built around their owner’s Tongkonan. Commoners might marry anyone, but nobles preferred to marry in-family to maintain their status. Sometimes nobles married Bugis or Makassarese nobles. Commoners and slaves were prohibited from having death feasts. Despite close kinship and status inheritance, there was some social mobility, as marriage or change in wealth could affect an individuals status. Wealth was counted by the ownership of water buffaloes.Slaves in Toraja society were family property. Sometimes Torajans decided to become slaves when they incurred a debt, pledging to work as payment. Slaves could be taken during wars, and slave trading was common. Slaves could buy their freedom, but their children still inherited slave status. Slaves were prohibited from wearing bronze or gold, carving their houses, eating from the same dishes as their owners, or having sex with free women-a crime punishable by death.