Andrographis paniculata CONTINUOUS ASSESMENT I 2018 NAME

Andrographis paniculata
CONTINUOUS ASSESMENT I
2018
NAME:ROXIETTE SIQUEIRA
ROLL NO : SU160118
CLASS:TYBSC

TABLE OF CONTENT
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Medicinal Uses…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Chemical Constituents…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Cultivation and Harveting …………………………………………………………………………………
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ABSTRAST
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as “king of bitters,” is an herbaceous plant belonging to the family Acanthaceae. .It is one of the most popular medicinal plants. This plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, upper respiratory tract infections, fever, common cold etc. A. paniculata contains diverse compounds including diterpenoid lactones, flavonoids and miscellaneous compounds.Andrographolide is a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, it is a kharif crop and its cultivated mainly for its medicinal uses .It can be cultivated on any type of soil. This assignment describes the medicinal usage, phytochemistry and cultivation of A.paniculata

INTRODUCTION
A.paniculata is a member of the plant family Acanthaceae. It is known as King of Bitters (English), Mahatikta (Sanskrit), Kiryato (Gujarati), Mahatita (Hindi), Kalmegh (Bengali), or Fah Talai Jone (Thai). It is native to peninsular India and Srilanka and is also distributed in different regions of Southeast Asia, China, America, West Indies and Christmas Island.

Andrographis paniculata is an annual, branched, herbaceous plant erecting to a height of 30-110 cm in moist shady places. The stem is acutely quadrangular; much branched and can be broken easily due to its fragile texture. Leaves are simple, opposite, glabrous, lanceolate, 2-12 cm long, 1-3 cm wide with acute entire margin. Inflorescence is terminal and axillary in panicle, 10-30 mm long with small bract and short pedicel. The flowers possess calyx with 5 sepals which are small and linear. Corolla tubes are narrow, about 6 mm long, bilabiate, upper lip oblong, white with a yellowish top, whereas the lower tips are broadly cuneate, 3-lobed, white with violet markings. Stamens 2, present. Ovary superior, 2-celled with exerted style. Capsule of the herb is erect, linear-oblong, 1-2 cm long, compressed, longitudinally furrowed on broad faces with thin glandular hairs. Seeds are very small.
It is cultivated because of its well known medicinal value and it grows well in most soil types thus it is widely distributed. The aerial parts and roots of the plant have been widely used as traditional medicine in China, India, Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries to treat many maladies. It has been used for centuries to successfully treat respiratory diseases, skin infections, herpes, dysentery, fever, sore throat, lower urinary tract infections, to reduce inflammation and to stop diarrhea. It is also prescribed for snakebite.
The aerial part of the plant contains a large number of chemical constituents, mainly lactones, diterpenoids, diterpene glycosides, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. It has multiple pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective activity, anti-cancer, antitumor, hypoglycemic, immunomodulatory and hypotensive activities.

MEDICINAL USES
The robust use of the different parts of A. paniculata plant in folk medicine, especially, in Asia led scientists to study its pharmacological properties to validate its use as a therapeutic agent in the remedy of various ailments.

Several studies showed that this plant exhibited various biological activities such as anti-microbial, cytotoxicity, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone modulatory, liver enzymes modulatory and insecticidal and toxicity activities
The aerial parts, roots and whole plant of A. paniculata have been used for centuries in Asia as traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments.

It has been used by traditional medical practitioners for stomachaches, inflammation, pyrexia, and intermittent fevers.

The whole plant has been used for several applications such as anti-dote for snake-bite and poisonous stings of some insects, and to treat dyspepsia, influenza, dysentery, malaria and respiratory infections.

The leaf extract is a traditional remedy for the treatment of infectious disease, fever-causing diseases, colic pain, and loss of appetite, irregular stools and diarrhea.

In Malaysia, a decoction of the aerial parts is used to treat common cold, hypertension, diabetes, malaria and snakebite.

It is an important constituent of at least 26 Ayurvedic formulas in Indian pharmacopoeia.

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is seen as the cold-property herb used to rid the body of heat and fever and to dispel toxins from the body.

In Ayurvedic medicinal system, tribal’s of Tamilnadu, India use this herb for a variety of ailments like dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, pre-natal and post-natal care, complicated diseases such malaria, jaundice, gonorrhea and general ailments like wounds, cuts, boils and skin diseases.

Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest the potential for beneficial effects in diseases like cancer and HIV infections.

Due to its “blood purifying” activity it is recommended for use in cases of leprosy, gonorrhea, scabies, boils, skin eruptions, and chronic and seasonal fevers.

TABLE 1: Medicinal Uses of A.paniculata

TABLE 2: Modes/methods of using A.paniculata

Constituents
The major constituents of A.paniculata are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols.

The major diterpenoid in A.paniculata is andrographolide.

Andrographolide has a very bitter taste, and it is colorless and crystalline in appearance.

The leaves contain the maximum amount of andrographolide (1.0% to 2.39%), while the seeds contain the lowest.

This Andrographolide was first isolated in pure form by Gorter in 1911.

The other main diterpenoids are deoxyandrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxy-
11,12-didehydroandrographide and isoandrographolide.

The twenty flavonoids found in A.paniculata are: 5,5′-dihydroxy-7,8,2′-trimetroxyflavone,5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,6’tetramethoxyflavone, 5,3′-dihydroxy-7,8,4′-trimethoxyflavone, 2′-hydroxy-5,7,8 trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,3′,4′-pentamethoxyflavone, wightin, 5,2′,6′-trihydroxy-7- methoxyflavone 2′-O-D-glucopyranoside, 5,7,8,2′-tetramethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone,5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone,5,2′-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone,5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,5′-tetramethoxyflavone,5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone,5-hydroxy-7,8,2′-trimethoxyflavone,5,4′-dihydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone, dihydroneobaicalein, andrographidine A, andrographidine B, andrographidine C and 5,2′-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone 2′-O-Dglucopyranoside.

The two phenylpropanoids found in A.paniculata are trans-cinnamic acid and 4-hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde
Oleanolic acid ,Cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are also present in the whole plant,
?-sitosterol and ?-daucosterol are found in A.paniculata.

Several miscellaneous compounds like 1, 8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-xanthone, 4,8-dihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-xanthone, 1,2-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthone and 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone have been isolated from this plant.

18415340360Table3: Terpenes present in A.paniculata
Table 4:Flavonoids present in A.Paniculata

CULTIVATION and harvest operations
SOIL
The plant grows well in all types of soil which explains its wide distribution. It grows in soil types where almost no other plant can be cultivated, particularly ‘serpentine soil’, which is relatively high in metals such as aluminum, copper and zinc. Soil that is flooded or wet throughout the year may be avoided for its cultivation. The species was also observed to grow luxuriously in mild humid locations with tropical temperature and high rainfall
CLIMATE
The climatic requirement of this plant is hot and humid conditions with ample sunshine. With the onset of monsoon, plant grows luxuriantly and starts flowering with the moderation in temperature during September. Flowering and fruiting continues up to December until temperature drops drastically.

CULTIVATION
Its propagation is done using seeds. Vegetative propagation is also possible in certain special cases through layering as each node is capable of producing enough roots. Seeds are small and remain dormant for five to six months.

For raising the crop in one hectare three beds of 10×2 m size should be tilled, pulverized and leveled during the month of May. Liberal use of organic manure is advised for raising healthy seedling. Seeds should be covered by very thin layer of soil and compost mixture. Beds should be covered properly by suitable mulch and irrigated regularly with water fountain till seedlings merge (6-7 days). Immediately after germination, mulch is removed to avoid elongation of the seedlings. After 10-15 days regular flood irrigation can be given till it becomes ready for planting. Transplanting of seedling is done in second fortnight of June at a row and plant spacing of 45 to 60 cm and 30 to 45 cm respectively. Beds should be irrigated immediately after planting.

THINNING AND WEEDING
In the beginning one or two weeding/hoeing are essential till the crop gets established. After establishment, crop grows well during monsoon and does not face any competition from weed.

MANURES, FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES
The plant is grown without use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Organic manures like, Farm Yard Manure (FYM), Vermi-Compost, Green Manure etc. may be used as per the requirement of the crop. To prevent diseases, bio-pesticides could be prepared (either single or mixture) from Neem (kernel, seeds & leaves), Chitrakmool, Dhatura, Cow’s urine etc.

IRRIGATION
Fairly distributed rainfall during monsoon is sufficient to this raise annual crop. But prior to rain 2-3 irrigations are required. Irrigation during autumn does not show much effect on biomass yield as by that time plant is in reproductive phase.

HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION
Maximum herb biomass can be obtained in 90-100 days after sowing beyond which leaves start shedding. The plants are cut at flowering stage from the base leaving 10–15 cm stem for plant regeneration. If the crop is raised as annual crop and planted during the month of May June, it should be harvested by the end of the September when flowering is initiated. At the time of flower initiation, active principle andrographolide is high in leaves. Since the whole plant contains active principles, entire harvested material is dried in shade and powdered.

YIELD
A well-maintained crop grown during monsoon season yields 3.5 to 4.0 tons of dried herb per hectare.

CONCLUSION
Andrographis paniculata belongs to the family of Acanthaceae .This plant is of great medicinal importance .It has been used to treat common cold, fever , malaria, jaundice, gonorrhea etc. It has anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective etc. properties. The plant contains a large number of chemical constituents, mainly lactones, diterpenoids, diterpene glycosides, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. This plant can grows well on all types of soils. it requires moist and humid conditions to grow .It is grown without the use of any chemical fertilizers and pesticides .The plants are harvested 90-100 days after sowing. After harvesting they are dried and powdered.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY Alagesaboopath C., D. P. (2000). Andrographis paniculata Nees in Tribal Medicine of Tamil Nadu. Ancient Sciences of Life , 28-30.

Arifullah Mohmmed, N. D. (2013). Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Asian Pacific Journal of Biomedicine , 604-610.

Okhuarobo Agbondlahor, F. E. (2014). Harnessing the medicinal properties of Andrographis paniculata for diseases and beyond: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Asian Specific Journal of Tropical Diseases , 213-222.

S. Carmen Maria, T. G.-C. (2016). Chemical Constituents of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research , 1398-1402.

Thanasekaran Jayakumar, C.-Y. H.-J.-R. (2013). Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine .

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