Assignment Brief and Cover Sheet EduQual – DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

Assignment Brief and Cover Sheet
EduQual – DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT (SCQF LEVEL 11)
Learner Name: Miriam Kanhai
Assignment Title: Resourcing, talent management and development; employee relations / Task1 Assignment Reference:12/ 15311/eduqual
Unit Title(s): Resourcing, talent management and development; employee relations /Unit 1
Date issued to learner: 29/01/2018 Hand-in Deadline:
Actual date submitted: 29/04/18
Name of Assessor(s): S. Gandhimathi
-3810014605
INTRODUCTION
Global employment markets are very key to the development of economies. Over these years the structure, profile and characteristics of global employment markets have been undergoing changes. According to the International Labour Organisation (2008) a number of factors such as globalisation, the changing economic environment, rapid technological change, demographic continue to impact on global employment markets.
Given the changing global employment environment, it is crucial that appropriate approaches and strategies are adopted by organisations and countries to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in employee resourcing and talent management. For example, Brown (2016) notes that the employment market in the US, has undergone deep transformations and changes to the extent that organisations are adapting to the changes in the labour market and rethinking the skills needed to compete.

This paper covers an evaluation of the characteristics of changing global markets as well as contemporary approaches to employee resourcing and talent management.

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CHANGING GLOBAL EMPLOYMENT MARKETS
Prising (2016) pointed out that a number of factors or drivers within the global environment in general and individual markets in particular are contributing to the rapid change in global employment markets. An assessment of the characteristics of the changing global market is done through an evaluation of the various factors driving the change as discussed hereunder.

Globalisation and privatisation
Globalisation has seen a number of countries and economies becoming interconnected which has tremendously influenced employment markets to the extent that there is free flowing of labour from different places around the globe with different backgrounds, giving rise to the need of accommodate and embracing diversity in the world of work to cater for such differences.
Due to globalisation there has been notable changes in the work environment, Elijah 2007 postulates that globalisation have resulted in the polarisation of employment condition and further resulted in the differentiation in the workforce.

Firms are not putting in place measures to remain competitive in the labour market such as the “casualisation” of labour. Casualisation of labour can take various forms which include the following part-time workers these are casual workers, seasonal workers for example agro based employees and subcontracted workers.
Internationalisation and Competition-
Since the year 2000, Zimbabwe has been recording less than 40% production capacity across all industries. To this extent, more employees have been laid off through retrenchment process giving rise to the number of unemployed workers on the employment market. Furthermore, given the low production across industries, the local industries have experienced competition from other suppliers of similar products for example the local manufactures of cooking oil such as Olivine and Surface Investments have had their product substituted by Dilute Cooking oil from South Africa. This means that demand for labour will increase in South Africa than in Zimbabwe given the substitution of local products by those being imported.
Demographic Change
Demographic change is one of the factors that have had an impact on employment markets. Prising (2016) pointed out that trends such as aging and declining birth rates have an impact on the availability and supply of labour in global employment markets. The author noted that over 60% of the Chinese population would be over 60 years which is likely to lead to stagnant workforce.

Technological innovation
According to Smit et al (2003), technological macro environment factors can influence how an organization does business. In the employment markets this technological revolution has resulted some jobs becoming redundant while at the same time the creation of new and innovative jobs. A number of jobs are likely to be automated with artificial intelligence playing a leading role. This may reduce the number of employees required in a firm’s labour force and certain levels of employees may be made redundant thus affecting overall employment levels.

Approaches to Employee resourcing and talent management
Employee resourcing involves the following activities such as human resource planning, talent management, recruitment and selection, induction or orientation and release of employees.

Talent comprised of all the activities that are related to the retention of employees and eventual development of skilled personnel. Talent management entails a commitment by organisation to develop its workforce through recruitment, hiring, retention of qualified personnel in the market.
According to Amstrong, (2007) the strategic significance of employee resourcing stems from its focus on matching human resource capabilities with the strategic and operational needs of a firm and ensures organizations employ the right people in the right job.
Contemporary Approaches
According to CIPD, employee resourcing falls into three main dimensions namely the traditional, new and contingency-based paradigms. The new paradigms also known as alternative views, modern or contemporary approaches to employee resourcing include the resource-based view, social process views, power, knowledge views, knowledge management perspectives, and customer-service approach.

According to Rossett and Marshall, (1999) the explicit and tacit knowledge residing in employees is key for creating a competitive advantage. In the context of employee resourcing and talent management knowledge management involves activities associated with, among others; ascertaining that effective work is delivered educating and developing employees capturing, transferring and organising knowledge motivating, facilitating and empowering employees creating cultural and knowledge-sharing conditions.

Employee resourcing plays a key role in knowledge management. Careers, in particular play an important role in integrating and sharing knowledge. The intentions of employee resourcing are meant to achieve the following objectives as propounded by Stewart 1997, he argues that employee resourcing creates new approaches of thinking, acting, promulgation of new policies, new practices, new technologies and new skills and job requirements.
A customer service approach to ER demands: adopting a customer service strategy; promoting a customer service culture; getting top management support; analysing who the customers of ER are; understanding their needs; and adopting customer relationship management, quality management and continuous improvement perspectives. Thus in terms of the approach screening employees and ensuring that they possess the requisite skill set which will result in supporting a strong customer service environment is important.

A resource-based view to employee resourcing and talent management provides support to employees’ personal and professional growth. In this approach human resources are viewed as a pool of knowledge, skills and insight that can provide a source of sustained competitive advantage.

THE PROFESSIONAL HR FUNCTIONS
Human Resources functions involves all elements that comprises of recruitment; employee staffing; administrating employee compensation and employee benefits. In addition, HR functions also include administering employee welfare, monitoring industrial relations, employee training and employee development. The functions are evaluated hereunder.

Recruitment-
According to Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert (1997), recruitment was defined as an HR function which is concerned with the development of a pool of job candidates in accordance with a human resources plan. The process involves advertising of a position to the labour market where candidates can be drawn to fill in positions that would have arisen within the organisation. In Zimbabwe the most common methods of recruiting candidates are advertisement through the local press, electronic recruitment, the use of employment agencies and referrals from professional bodies. The process ensures that the right candidates for the jobs are invited for consideration in employment.

Selection
According to Armstrong (2006), selection is the process of assessing the candidates that have shown interest in joining the organisation after the recruitment process. This process is very important as it tends to screen candidates depending on their abilities to fit into the organisation. in Zimbabwe, there are several selection techniques that can be used to screen candidates which includes, the interview during which candidates are asked questions and their responses are assessed, the use of reference checks to assess the employability behaviour of a candidates from the previous employer, the use of psychometric test to assess the hidden human attributes such as level of intelligence as well as the use of medical test to assess the health of a candidate before placement. If the selection strategies are not well designed, chances of the organisation appointing the wrong candidates became very high and that may fail the business.

Reward Management
According to Lepak and Gowan (2010) reward management is one such main function of the human resources management. Remuneration was defined by Armstrong (2006) as the total package that is paid out to an employee with monetary pay-outs that include basic pay, allowances such as: housing, night duty, transport and other benefits. It also includes non-monetary such as pension, medical aid, uniforms and canteen among others. Pay is the reward for labour, were labour is a factor of production. The price for labour is influenced by six factors main factors which are market prevailing rates, cost of living, bargaining power of unions, government legislations, and supply and demand of labour and industry standards. When employees are rewarded fairly, their level of performance will improve and the company will benefit through increased production output.

Retirement and Release of staff
According to Tryson (2006) retirement is a stage were an employee’s contract is terminated having reached the prescribed ages in the world of work. The idea is to let such person go and enjoy their pensions and the business recruiting new young and vibrant candidates. In Zimbabwe the National Social Security Authority (NSSA) Act states that, an employee may go on early retirement at the age of fifty five (55) years, normal retirement being sixty (60) years and late retirement being sixty five (65) years. This requires proactive human resources practices were manpower planning must be done way before the retiring employees exit the organisation. For example, Old Mutual has a workforce planning in place were those about to retire will mentor their successors before they exit so that production and other work activities are not affected as of when the retirees finally exit.
Measuring Performance
According to Bird (2006), measuring performance of an individual is done based on the standard set and they quantify and qualify the performance of an employee. At this point the supervisor or the line manager will be will be guided by the standard set for them to see if the person has achieved his or her target. The target should be realistic for employees to achieve it or even attempt it.
QUESTION 2.

Introduction
Learning is the continuous process of improving the knowledge, skills and behaviour of trainees or employees to perform both productively and effectively on the job assigned to them. According to Bishop and Taylor (2004) a skill today is not a skill of tomorrow as the business operating environment continues to change every now and then. As the business environment change, the demand for new skills will automatically arise as organisations endeavour to match employee skills and their operating environment. Learning is very important to in improving employee competency for production process. According to Mathis and (1997) employee competency is a function of the qualifications, skills and knowledge that an employee has at any given time in an organisation. Lepak and Gowan (2010) commented that competency employees are a function of learning organisations.
This paper is going to dwell more on organisation such Ministry of Education in Zimbabwe.

Theories of learning
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development cited by Lefe (2014) puts forward that Piaget theory involves observing children, understanding children in creating ideas. Furthermore Piaget stages of his theory shows that new developments and an increase of understanding the world of exhibited by children. In addition all the stages of his theory should be followed. At any time a child may start to show some behaviours of more than one stage.
Piaget argues that the first stage of sensorimotor commences at birth of the child to two (2) years of age. The sensorimotor involve the use of application of objects and symbols. Such experiment might include putting the objects in the mouth. Early language development starts during this first stage. Infants realize that an object exists after it can no longer be seen.

Preoperational stage happens at children who are 18- 24 months and those who are seven (7) years early. At this stage children begin to develop and start showing some signs through use of language and hands on things. Children at preoperational stage begin to understand the connection between the past and future. Children at this stage will begin to tackle simple concepts than complex because they still have to follow the stages. Some people who are born with intelligence should demonstrate the use of symbols and objects when things are complex.

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura posits that Social learning theory can be done by learning from others and through observing what others do. He further posited that learning can also observed through reinforcement In addition to the observation of behavior, learning also occurs through the observation of rewards and punishments, a process known as vicarious reinforcement. Social learning theory is expanding on traditional behavioral theories, where behavior is governed solely by reinforcements, by placing emphasis on the important roles of various internal processes in the learning individual. For example when a student in a class performs well, a reward must be awarded for the extra performance and thus reinforcing the performance. Other students will learn that good performance is reward when they see one being rewarded. Punishment is equally applied at Education Sector where we short time for non-performers and bad behaviour.
Behaviourism theory – Behaviourism is concerned with observing and measuring aspects of human behaviour. The behaviourist learning theories emphasize on changes in the behaviour that result from stimulus-response associations made by the learner. Behaviour is directed by stimuli. Behaviourist theory does not explain abnormal behaviour in terms of the brain or its inner workings. Rather, it posits that all behaviour is learned habits, and attempts to account for how these habits are formed. In assuming that human behaviour is learned, behaviourists also hold that all behaviours can also be unlearned, and replaced by new behaviours; that is, when a behaviour becomes unacceptable, it can be replaced by an acceptable one.

Social Cognitive Theory . This theory denotes assumptions about learning and behaviour. The underlining themes investigates how personal, behavioural, and environmental factors that influence one another in different forms. The SCT theory postulates that various factors influence classroom learning environment which are the academic environment which basically looks at reinforced experience by onself as well as others. The classroom theory also takes recognition of the students on perspectives, in this regard point to their own thoughts and their personal beliefs, else well as on interpretation of the classroom context.

SCT’s one of its underlining assumptions is that learning can be experienced however without immediate results in change of behaviour. Therefore, the two are distinct from each other in reference to learning and behaviour change. Henceforth SCT postulates that learning is a function of demonstrating what has been learned depending on the motivation to do so.

The Notion of Human Resource Development- According to Armstrong and Kotller (2009) qualitative forecasting was defined as the process of determining the enabling knowledge skills and talents of people to perform both productively and effectively in the Education Sector. The notion behind qualitative forecasting is premised within the Resource Based View model (RBV) which state that the Organisation van only achieve a competitive advantage and a leading role in its operating industry if it has quality workforce. Senge (1990) also subscribed to the same thinking of resource based view by stating that the ministry of education learn through specific individuals within the organisation who are learning. He also concluded that only a quality workforce can create business sustainability by easily adopting to change a business environment that is faced with rapid changes due to the wave of macro environment.
Career management and Succession planning – The first organisational development strategy which an organisation may adopt for competitive advantage is carrier management and succession planning. Career management according to Armstrong (2009) was defined as a process concerned with the provision of opportunities for people to develop their abilities and their careers in order to ensure that the organization has flow of talent it needs and to satisfy their own aspirations. It is about integrating the needs for the organization with the needs of the individual. It would be noted that career management is also concerned with career counseling to help people develop their careers to their advantage as well as that of the organization.
Building learning organisation
Amongst the theories of learning we have the Building learning organisation theory. The theory was put forward by Senge.(1990). The theory looks at how learning impacts performance in the organisation. Learning according to the theory involves expansion of capabilities with the intention to create results that they desire.The theory also entails application of new ways of thinking, combined aspirations and lastly where people continue to expand their learning. One of the characteristic of learning organisation is one which allows the facilitation of learning to all its employees to members and also it consistently transforms itself from what it was before. Harrison (2000) as cited again in Armstrong (2009:657) commented that “the notion of the learning organisation remains persuasive because of its rationality, human attraction and presumed potential to aid organisational effectiveness and advancement…” learning organizations are organization that is not only capable of learning, but also learning to learn.

Evaluate strategies for learning and talent development
Learning and talent development has different strategies that can be used in Education Sector. The strategies are discussed below;
Reaction- It is determining the reaction of the learner to the course. Trainees are asked for their opinions of the training content, facilitator, lecturer, technique used and time allocation. An example after an on job training programme was done management may administer some evaluation forms which all participants complete having assessed the effect of the lecture itself. Students are free to give their opinion on whether the training addressed content needs, or whether or not facilitator was well knowledgeable or if practical examples were used, whether they managed to cover the practical within scheduled time. Trainees will rate the course in terms of the content covered for example 20%, the knowledge of the facilitator 15% use of practical examples 10% among other areas.

Learning- This is the determination of knowledge gained or acquired, skills enhanced and attitude displayed by the learners. It borrows from the learning curve that was suggested by Mathias and Jackson in (1997) which states that after going training or development programs, the trainees must be assessed in terms of skill and most importantly knowledge acquired. Therefore in an effort to assess the amount of knowledge acquired scientific measurements such as test are administered. A test distinguishes the students in terms of gravity of knowledge they would have acquired after training. Tests will rank the students using scientifically determined scores for example at University students may pass with a distinction, others with credit and others with a pass.
Change in behaviour- It is the analysis of any differences in job performance brought about by learning of the course. Change in behaviour looks at the following aspects the subject job performance after the training . According to Armstrong 2009 evaluation of training and development should assess the behaviour of the individual before and after the training. If the behaviour has changed it will be attributed to the success of the training. Furthermore trainees can be assessed in terms of their level of commitment. Salancik (1977) defined commitment as, “a condition in which a particular person is bound by actions in regard to beliefs that motivates his activities and his involvement”. The student researcher noted that the most important argument in Salancik’s definition is the fact that commitment as a state of being starts with the individual and extends itself to the attachment of the individual to organizational culture through adherence to a set of beliefs and assumptions that sustain desirable behaviour.
Organisational Impact-It is the process of identifying the cause and effect of relationship caused by training, one such cause and effect looks at the cost benefit analysis of training. This idea is shown by Kirkpatrick’s model, conversly Hamblin distinguishes such into separate componets of the organisation and then further separates them basing on the entire company or organisations. It assesses the extent to which the training impacted on performance of the business. According to Bishop and Taylor 2004, the key objective of training and development is to improve quantity and quality performance of employees within the organisation. They further stated that only competent employees are able to deliver quantity and quality outcomes which enable organisation to achieve competitive addition in its industry. An example is that of teachers trained to be a counsellor, a preacher it is an added advantage to the sector.
In conclusion, it has been noted that learning and talent development are a key to the organisation success, giving the rapid changes that are happening in the modern teaching environment. Only schools with employees who are learning will excel in an environment where everything is subject to change.

References List
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Armstrong, M (2006) A Handbook of Human Resource Management practice 10th edition, London: Kogan page
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Armstrong, M (2009) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 11th edition, Philadelphia PA 19147, United Kingdom USA
Armstrong, M (2009) A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 11th edition, Philadelphia PA 19147, United Kingdom USA
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Burnes, B. (2009) Managing Change, fifth edition, Prentice Hall, New York, London.

Chaneta, I. (2010), Industrial Realtions Issues, University of Zimbabwe Publications
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Farnham, D. and Pimlott, J. (1995). Understanding Industrial Relations (5th ed.).London: Cassell Educational Ltd.

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Kaufman, Bruce E. (2010) “The Theoretical Foundation of Industrial Relations and Its. Implications,” Industrial ; Labor Relations Review, Vol. 64, No. 1, article 4. Available at
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Lepak, D and Gowan, M. (2010) Human Resource Management: managing employees for competitive advantage, Pearson Education, London
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 Rose E. Employment Relations. 3rd ed. Harlow, England: Pearson Education; 2008.

Torington, D et al (2011) Human Resource Management, New York, Prentice Hall
Tryson (2006) Essentials of Human Resource Management, 5th edition, New Delhi, India
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