b) Amniocentesis is a genetic test that helps to determine various genetic, chromosomal or neural tube abnormalities of the fetus prenatally. Amniocentesis arises a few ethical questions. First of all, it is an invasive method of prenatal diagnosis and, therefore, poses a risk of harming the fetus. Secondly, positive test result inevitably leads to a decision making: continue with the pregnancy and to deal with the consequences of having a disabled child later or to terminate the pregnancy. Although, amniocentasis is a pretty accurate test (98-99%), there is always a possibility that it provided a false-positive result.
The ethical issues if one attempted to implement a screening program to detect carriers of Gaucher disease that employed a biochemical test with a diagnostic specificity of 0.95 would include the process of screening itself along with the obtaining the prior informed consent for screening. Also if the information regarding the carriers if made known would hamper their dignity and status. They would have to experience bias at every level, this being a lethal disorder with many symptoms of anemia and liver disorders.
b) Amniocentesis is an invasive method of prenatal diagnosis which has a risk of miscarriage and infection due to the procedure. Also the disclosure of carrier status of the child would pose a life danger due to possible abortion decision.