CHAPTER 1 1

CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction and Background of the Study
Ink is used in almost every aspect of human activity. Communicating in written form, writing letters and notes, duplicating or printing is its basic uses. In the ancient times, people utilized natural resources such as plants, animals, and minerals to derive natural dyes. Majority of these are vegetable dyes from plant sources – roots, berries, bark, leaves, flower and wood and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens (Barhanpurkar, Bhat, Kumar, and Purwar, 2015). However, since William Henry Perkin discovered the synthetic dye mauveine, there has been a surge in the production of synthetic dyes. This industry became a cause of serious concern because of the carcinogenic chemicals used during the manufacturing process, as well as the environmental pollution caused by its toxic by-products (Ratna and Padhi, 2012). In order to avoid these potential hazards, Trirat (2015), stated that finding a non-toxic alternative would be of great help.

Banana (Musa x paradisiaca) is a plant cultivated in Malaysia, Philippines, and other tropical countries. It is classified under the genus Musa – a member of the monocotyledonous family of Musaceae (Simmonds and Shepherd, 2008). Furthermore, as described by Ploetz, Kepler, Daniells and Nelson (2007), the fruit is elongated and curved; the flesh is white and soft; while the outer covering can be purple, green, yellow, or brown when over ripe.

In the book written by Cumo (2015), he mentioned that banana is referred as ‘Kalpatharu’ in India which means “a virtuous plant”. This is due to the fact that this plant has multifaceted uses. Aside from being rich in potassium, it also has a low content value of salt, cholesterol and fat which provides a more balanced diet (Sampath Kumar, Bhowmik, Duraivel, and Umadevi, 2012). Many parts of the plant are also used in Pacific culture for medicinal purposes. According to Kapadia, Pudakalkatti, and Shivanaikar (2015), the alcoholic extract and bioactive compounds present in the banana peel have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. In addition to this, the study conducted by Panighari et al. (2017) in India, demonstrated antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of the banana pseudostem. The study made by Barhanpurkar, Bhat, Kumar, and Purwar (2015) also concluded that the sap of banana plant contain carbohydrates, lignin, tannin and alpha cellulose. Tannin is recognized as the most important component necessary for mordanting with natural dyes.

Another plant extract which could be used as an alternative ink is the gumamela. As mentioned by Salib (2014), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a flowering plants in the mallow family Malvaceae. Member species are noticeable because for their showy flowers. The leaves of gumamela are alternate, oval outline to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. Its flowers are huge, attracting, trumpet-shaped, and has five or more petals. Colors may vary from white to pink, red, orange, peach, yellow or purple, and the size may be 4-18 cm broad. Hibiscus is a hardy, flexible plant and in tropical conditions it can enhance the beauty of any garden
In the Philippines, gumamelas are used by the children in bubble-making as their past time. The flowers and leaves are squeezed until the sticky juices come out. (Gumamela: The Bubble Flower, 2017). According to Wee (2003), the sap of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is used as a shoe polisher or a shoe-blackening product in Jamaica thus, it is called as the “shoe flower”. The flower of the plant is worn by women to symbolize the civil status of a person in the Pacific Island. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in red flower includes highly concentrated of anthocyanins which have probability as an organic dyes for solar cells (Wong, Lim, and Chan, 2009).

With all of these information, the researchers proposed of using the sap of the banana and gumamela as an alternative ink base to prevent any adverse effects to the users and to be eco-friendly by avoiding the usage of toxic chemicals in such products.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the banana sap combined with gumamela extract as an ink base. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
Is banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink effective in terms of the following:
Color
Absorption
Stick Consistency
Will the quality of the ink be acceptable in terms of:
Color
Odor
Absorption
Rate of Evaporation
1.3 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study will determine the effectiveness of the banana sap and gumamela as an organic ink. Extraction of the banana pseudostem and gumamela flower will be utilized to get the banana sap and the juice of the gumamela. Chromatography will be administered to compare the synthetic and organic ink made by the researchers. The medicinal and nutritive property of the banana sap will not be discussed in detail because it is not related to the current study.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Nowadays, people are consciously concern about their health and the global environment, so they require safe and eco-friendly product (Cristea and Vilarem, 2008). There are other manufactured ink nowadays that come with quite an expensive price, but since the materials to be used in making our product are common and easy to find, less money will be spent with the natural alternative product.The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness of combined banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) as an alternative ink. Additionally, this study could be of significant help to the following:
Teachers. This study will help the educators to encourage the future students to use biodegradable than standard inks to lessen the threat to today’s environment, which can have valuable impacts not only on our environment but also on human’s health.
Community. People in the community can truly understand and realize the benefits that they can get from using organic ink instead of the petroleum-based ink. This study may impart knowledge about the causes of health problems due to petroleum-based ink. In addition, no harmful chemicals were utilized in making the ink, therefore, it is non-toxic compared to commercially sold ink, which have tendencies in causing harm to one’s health and to the environment.
Future Researchers and Students. The findings of this research study will benefit the researchers by producing an alternative ink. This might help the future researchers by providing necessary information related to the study and this study may also serve as a reference to the next researchers who will study about the banana sap and gumamela as an ink. In conforming to the information of the research study, it will give them knowledge about the usage of banana sap as an ink base and this research may also serve as their background study while they are performing their research.

1.5.1 Null Hypothesis
1. There is no significant difference between the banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink and the commercial ink.

2. The usage of banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink results a good quality ink.

1.5.2 Alternative Hypothesis
1. There is a significant difference between the banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink and the commercial ink.

2. The usage of banana sap (Musa x paradisiaca) and gumamela extract (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) ink results a good quality ink.

1.6 Definition of Terms
Monocotyledonous – a flowering plant with an embryo that carries a single cotyledon. It constitutes the smaller part in the two division of a flowering plants, and typically have a long narrow stalkless leaves with horizontal veins.

Pseudostem – is the part of the banana plant that looks like a trunk. It is formed by the tightly packed overlapping leaf sheaths. It is very fleshy and consists mostly of water, it is quite sturdy and can support a bunch that weighs 50 kg or more.

Sap – is the fluid, chiefly water with dissolved sugars and mineral salts, that circulates in the vascular system of a plant.

Musaceae – the family of banana plants (order Zingiberales). It has two genera which are named as Musa and Ensete, with about 50 species that are native to the regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia.

REFERENCES:
Barhanpurkar, Bhat, Kumar, , and Purwar (2015). Studies of Banana sap used as mordant for natural dye. International Journal on Textile Engineering and Processes, 1(4), 56-57.

Cristea and Villarem (2008). Fashion and Textiles: Breakthrough in Research and Practice.

Cumo (2015). Foods that Changed History: How Foods Shaped Civilization from the Ancient World ot the Present. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p 10.

Gumamela: The Bubble Flower. (2017). Retrieved September 15, 2018 from http://www.atayala.com/home-and-spaces/2017-01-30/gumamela-the-bubble-flower
Kapadia, Pudakalkatt, and Shivanaikar (2015). Detection of antimicrobial property of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study. Contemp Clin Dent, 6(4), 496-499. Doi: 10.4103/0976-2376-23X.169864.

Panigrahi, Dey, Sahoo, and Dan (2017). Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant efficacy of Musa paradisiaca pseudostem on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rat. Indian J Pharmacol, 49(1), 77-83. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.201026.

Ploetz, Kepler, Daniells, and Nelson (2007). Banana and plantain – an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars. In: CR Elevitch, ed. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agricultural Resources, Holualoa, Hawai’i. Retrieved August 30, 2018, from https://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/sustainag/extn_pub/fruitpubs/Banana-plantain-overview.pdf
Ratna and Padhi (2012). Pollution due to synthetic dyes toxicity & carcinogenicity studies and remediation. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(3), 940-943. doi: 10.6088/ijes.2012030133002
Salib (2014). Polyphenols in Plants: Isolation, Purification and Extract Preparation. Department of Chemistry of Tanning Materials, National Research Center: Dokki, Egypt. 231-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397934-6.00012-7
Kumar, Bhowmik, Duraivel, and Umadevi (2012). Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(3). Retrieved September 30, 2018, from www.phytojournal.com
Simmonds and Shepherd (2008). The taxonomy and origins of the cultivated bananas. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 55(359), 302–312. doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1955.tb00015.x
Trirat (2015). The Property of Screen Ink from Natural Mordant, Colorant, and Additive for Art. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6(11), 68-67.

Uma, Kalpana, Sathiamoorthy, and Kumar (2005). Evaluation of commercial cultivars of banana for their suitability to fibre industry. Plant Genetic Technology Newsletter, 142, 1-8. Retrieved August 29, 2018, from http://krishi.icar.gov.in/jspui/handle/123456789/2539
Wee (2003). Tropical Trees and Shrubs: A Selection for Urban Plantings. Singapore: Sun Tree Publishing Limited. 392Wong, Lim, and Chan, (2009). Antioxidant properties of hibiscus: Species variation, altitudinal change, coastal influence and floral colour change. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 21(4), 307–315.