In chemical processes

In chemical processes, raw materials are converted into desired products by efficiently utilizing available energy sources (Moncada, Lopez, & Marin, 2015). Common equipment used are chemical reactors which are fundamental in Chemical engineering as they function as vessels for industrially valuable chemical reactions. Reactors must be designed to provide sufficient time for chemical reactions. Three fields of chemical engineering are involved in the construction of reactors namely: thermodynamics, heat transfer, and kinetics.
Chemical reactors are classified according to: (1) Operation type, where the configuration of the reactor is of essence; (2) Number of phases, where reactors are classified according to the number of phases present in the reaction; (3) Reaction types, where the type of chemical reaction is considered; and (4) Combination of terms, where the reactor is a mixture of the other types mentioned. Batch, semi-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor, plug flow, and fluidized bed are the primary designs of chemical reactors. Material and energy balances are the bases of the operating expressions of these process vessels.