left6211417Group Number

left6211417Group Number: 8Fatima Nasir (2016-es-033) Aliza Niazi (2016-es-034) Fatima Nadeem (2016-es-035) AREeSHA EHSAN (2016-es-036)
00Group Number: 8Fatima Nasir (2016-es-033) Aliza Niazi (2016-es-034) Fatima Nadeem (2016-es-035) AREeSHA EHSAN (2016-es-036)
leftcenter Assignment Topic: CIA Fact book PakistanSubmitted To: Sir Awais Khalid
00 Assignment Topic: CIA Fact book PakistanSubmitted To: Sir Awais Khalid

Introduction
Five thousand years ago, Indus valley civilization; the oldest shows what is at present Pakistan.
Culture is the furl form of migrating-Aryan people. There are the remnants of this culture.

This area is unknown for successive innovations in subsequent centuries from different groups including:
Persians
Scythians
Turks
Afghans
Greeks
16th and 17th centuries heighten the Mughal Empire. Whereas 18th century is called British domination era on one region.

Separation of division of sub-continent for Muslims and Hindus wasn’t done satisfactory. Separation event was took place in 1947.Two wars were faced by India and Pakistan.
First war as in 1965 and the second was in 1974. In the race of nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan showed his nuclear power in 1998. Pak-India friendship improved day by day till 2000s but their relationship started too weak because of Mumbai attacks further more by attacks in India, being based in Pakistan. Nawaz Sharif sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of hijacking and terrorism. supreme court validate the Oct 1999 coup and granted general Pervez Musharraf executive and legislative authority for three years First time in history of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif complete a full term and transitioned to a successive democratically elected government.

The supreme court in July 2017 disqualified Sharif took charged by Shahid Hakaan Abbasi scheduled general election that was took placed on 25 July, retired justice general Naseer-ul-Mulk took over as care taker prime minister in June 2018 till general elections unfortunately tahreek e Taliban and other such networks got engaged with Pakistan.

But same time relationship with militant groups that target government sectors in a decades-long armed has been conflicted
Geography
India present in east. On the western side Afghanistan and Iran are present China in north. Geography coordinates of Pakistan are 3000 N and 7000 E. Pakistan map references is Asia.

Area of Pakistan is 796095 square km with 770875sq km land occupied, 25220sq km water occupied.

Pakistan’s comparison as countries to the world is 37
Area of Pakistan is larger than five times than the size of Georgia and twice than the size of California.

According to area comparison map, the land boundaries is at about 7257km with border countries.

Afghanistan 2670km
China 438km
India 3190km
Iran 959km
And cost line 1046km.

Maritime claims is as follow
Territorial sea 12nm
Exclusive economic zone 200nm
Contiguous zone24nm
Continental shelf200nm
As Pakistan is an Asian country, climate in mostly hot additionally dry desert.

Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas including northern highlands, the Indus river plan and the center and the east and Baluchistan plateau in the south and west.

In reference to elevation, mean elevation: 900m elevation extremes 0m
Natural resources including arable land, extensive natural gas reserves limited petroleum poor quality coal iron ore copper salt lime stone.

Pakistan’s land is called as agricultural land out of total land 35.2% is used for agriculture arable land is 27.6% forest is 2.1% and the left is 62.7%
People and Society
The current population of Pakistan is 202444340 based on UNE. Pakistan population is equivalent to 2.63% of total world population. Country comparison of Pakistan to world is 6
The country Pakistan is set to be consisted of following ethnic group.

Punjabi 44.7%
Balochi 3.6%
Muhajirs 7.6%
Pashto 15.4%
Sindhi 14.1%
Seraiki 8.4%
Others 6.3%
It has been to word that cleared that Pakistan has different kind of people as their living style and way of communication is also different from each other same language people can communicate with each other in more conventional way.

Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki 10%, Pashto 8%, English 8% , Brahui 1%, Balochi 3%, Urdu 8%, Hindko 2%
Pakistan do not accommodate only Muslims but people with other religions also exist as Muslims 96.4%, other 3.6%.

Society of Pakistan is consider to be family system and a family is consisted of persons with variations in ages.

0-14years 30.76%
15-24years20.94%
25-54years38.04%
55-64years5.7%
65years and overs4.56%
Dependency ratio are given below:
Total dependency ratio 65.3%
Youth dependency ratio57.9%
Elder dependency ratio7.4%
Potential support ratio 13.5%
Medium age included total 24.1 years with male 24.1 and female 24.2 years
Population of Pakistan is sky touching and average population growth rate is 1.41% birth rate is 21.6 births/thousand populations
Death rate is 6.3 deaths/thousand population
Net migration rate;
-1.3migrant/thousand population

Government
Country Name:
The conventional name of Pakistan is Islamic Republic of Pakistan .Its short form is Pakistan .Its local form is Jamhuryat Islamic Pakistan and formerly it was known as West Pakistan. The word Pak means clear in Persian while Stan means land, so the word “Pakistan” means “Pure Place”.

Type of Government;
The government type is Federal Parliamentary Republic.

Capital:
The capital of Pakistan is Islamabad.

Independence:
The independence day of Pakistan is 14th august 1947 (from British India).

National Holiday:
Pakistan Resolution Day on 23rd march (1940).It recalls adoption of the Lahore Resolution by All India Muslim League and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23rd march 1950.

Legal System:
Islamic law influence is there in the legal system of Pakistan.

Citizenship:
Citizenship is given to the natives. At least one parent must be citizen of Pakistan for citizenship. Dual citizenship is given but it is limited to selected countries.

Suffrage:
The age for suffrage is 18 years. Reserved parliamentary seats are there for women and non – Muslims.

Executive Branch:
The head of state is President Arif Alvi (since 9 September 2018). The head of government is Prime Minister Imran Khan (since 18 august 2018). The cabinet is scheduled by the president.

Legislative Branch:
Majilis-e-shoora consists of: Senate, National Assembly and Consultative Council.

Judicial Branch:
Supreme Court of Pakistan is the highest court while High Court, Federal Shariat Court, provincial and district civil and criminal courts are the subordinate courts. Justices is appointed by the president of Pakistan and can serve until the age of 65.

Political Parties and Leaders:
Jamaat –I-Islamic or JI (Sirajul HAQ), Awami National Party or ANP (Mian Iftikhar Hussain), Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz or PMLN (Nawaz Sharif), Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PMLN-F (Pir Pagaro or Syed Shah Mardan Shah 2), Pakistan People Party Parliamentarians or PPPP (Bilawal Bhutto Zardari), Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI (Imran Khan) etc.

Flag Description:
The green color of the flag shows that Pakistan is an Islamic state while the vertical white band represents the religious minorities in Pakistan.

National Symbol and Anthem:
Jasmine is the national flower, national colors are green and white, national insignia is crescent and star. National anthem is commonly known as “Qaumi Tarana”. National anthem was adopted in 1954.Its lyrics was written by Abu- Al- Asar Hafeez Jullandhuri.

Economy
The agriculture output is one-fifth in Pakistan and employment in this sector is two fifth. Pakistan GDP growth has increased since 2012 and was 5.30 percent in 2017. In order to boost the development, Pakistan and China are implementing “China Pakistan Economic Corridor” (CEPEC).It is believed that the export of the Pakistan will increase and hence growth rate will increase by CEPEC.

Gross Domestic Product:
GDP per capita at purchasing power parity is $1.060 trillion (2017 est.), $1.007 trillion (2016 est.), and $962.8 billion (2015 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 25 in comparison to the world. GDP-per capita (PPP) is $5400.0(2017 est.), $5200.0(2016 est.), and $5100.0 (2015 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 171 in comparison to the world. GDP real growth rate is 5.41 %( 2017 est.), 4.61 %( 2016 est.), 4.10 %( 2015 est.).Pakistan’s rank is 41 in comparison to the world. Gross national saving is 12.0% of GDP (2017 est.), 13.91% of GDP (2016 est.), 14.71% of GDP (2015 est.).GDP-composition, by end use in household consumption is 8.251 %( 2017 est.), government consumption 11.3% (2017 est.), exports of goods and services 8.20 %( 2017 est.), imports of goods and services is -17.50 %( 2017 est.).

Imports:
$53.110 billion (2017 est.), $42.690 billion (2016 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 51 in the world. Imports commodities include petroleum, petroleum products, transport equipment, tea steel and iron. Pakistan’s import partners are China 27.40%, UAE 13.7%, US 4.90%, Indonesia 4.31%, Saudi Arab 4.21% (2017).

Exports:
$32.88 billion (2017 est.), $21.97 0billion (2016 est.).Pakistan’s rank is 62 in the world. Pakistan’s export partners are US 17.7%, UK7.7%, China 6%, Germany 5.81%, Afghanistan 5.2%, UAE 4.50%, Spainn4.10% (2017). Export commodities include textiles, rice, leather goods, chemicals, surgical instruments, carpets and rugs.

Current Account Balance:
-$12.44 billion (2017 est.) and -$4.867 billion (2016 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 194 in the world.

Industrial Production Growth Rate:
Industrial production growth rate is 5.40% (2017 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 53 in the world.

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):
4.10 %( 2017 est.) And 2.91 %( 2016 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 161 in the world.

Unemployment Rate:
It is 6% (2017 est.) and 6.0% (2016 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 90 in the world.

Population below Poverty Line:
It is 29.51 %( FY2013 est.).

Energy
Electricity Access:
Population without electricity in Pakistan is 49.4 million (2013), electrification-total population is 73.1% (2013), – urban areas is 91.0% (2013)-rural areas is 62.1% (2013).

Electricity Production:
It is 104.5 billion kWh (2015 est,). Pakistan’s rank is 33 in the world.

Electricity Consumption:
It is 85.9 billion kWh (2015 est.).Pakistan’s rank is 34 in the world.

Electricity Export:
It is 0 kWh (2016 est,).Pakistan’s rank is 181 in the world.

Electricity Imports:
452 kWh (2016 est.) Pakistan’s rank is 83 in the world.

Electricity from Fossil Fuels:
61.80% of total installed capacity (2015 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 124 in the world.

Electricity from Nuclear Fuels:
3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 26 in the world.

Electricity from Hydroelectric Plants:
31.8% off total installed capacity (2015 est.).Pakistan’ rank is 70 in the world.

(Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy is 145 million Mt (2013 est.). Pakistan’s rank is 31 in the world.

Communication
Telephones-Fixed Lines:
Total subscriptions are 2940242 (2017 est.) and subscriptions per 100 inhabitants is 1 (2017 est.).Pakistan’s rank is 47 in the world.

Mobile Cellular Telephones:
Total subscriptions are 144525638 and subscriptions per 100 inhabitants is 71 (2017 est.).

Internet Country Code:
It is .pk.

Internet Users:
Total internet users are 31338716. Pakistan’s rank is 23 in the world. 15.5% population of Pakistan use internet (2016 est.).

Transportation
National Air Transport System:
Number of registered air carriers were 4 in 2015 and inventory of registered aircraft operated by air crafts were 67 in 2015 and annual passenger traffic or registered air carriers were 8,467,827 in 2015 and annual freight traffic on registered air carriers were 183,313 MT-km in 2015
Airports:
Number of airports were 151 in 2013
Airports –with paved runways:
Total: 108 (2017)
And 3,047m: 20 (2017)
2,438 to 2,437m: 43 (2017)
914 to 1,523m: 20(2017)
Under 914m: 10(2017)
Airports- with unpaved runways:
Total: 43 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437m: 9(2013)
914 to 1,523m: 9(2013)
Under 914m: 24 (2013)
Railways:
Total: 11,881km (2015)
Narrow gauge: 389km 1.000-m gauge (2015)
Broad gauge: 11.492km 1.676-m gauge (293km electrified) (2015)
Country comparison to world: 22
Military and Security
Military Expenditures:
Military expenditures give the amount of expenditures which are spend on the defense program as a percent of GDP. 3.56% of GDP was invested for military expenditures in the year 2016. In 2015 it was 3.54% of GDP and 3.48% of GDP in year 2014.

Military Branches:
According to 2015, it includes Pakistan army (National Guard), Pakistan navy (maritime security agency), Pakistan air force (Pakistan fiza’ya)
Military Service Age and Obligation:
The required age for voluntary military service is 16-23 years
Soldiers cannot be allowed to fight until age 18
Women are allowed to take part in all 3 armed forces
According to 2017 data reserve obligation to age 45 for enlisted men and age 50 for officers
Terrorism
1-Al-Qaida (AQ):
Purpose:
They eject western influence from Islamic world and unite the worldwide muslin community and overthrow government perceived as un-Islamic world and ultimately establish a Pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict salad Muslim interpretations of sharia
Operation Areas:
Operations occurs in Pakistan federally administered tribal areas (FATA) near Pakistan and Afghanistan border in April and year 2018
Haqqani Network (HQN):
Purpose:
They enhance their operational networks and capabilities for staging cross border attacks in Afghanistan They replace the afghan government with an Islamic state which was operating according to the strict salami Muslim interpretation of sharia
Operation Areas:
They headquartered in federally administered tribal areas (FATA) the region which is located across from Afghanistan southeastern border
Tehrik-e- Taliban Pakistan (TTP):
Purpose:
They remove Pakistan forces from federally administered Tribal areas (FATA) region. They over the Pakistan government to implement TTP strict interpretation of Shiara.

Operation Areas:
They maintain large presence in Karachi which is capital of Sindh province. They trains and deploy fighters in tribal belt in Pashtun areas along Pakistan and Afghanistan borders.

Indian Mujahedeen:
Purpose:
They stated goals to carry out terrorist attacks against Indians for perceived atrocities against Indian Muslim’s following 2002 Gujrat riots.

Operation Areas:
They located in Punjab and Sindh provinces and Pakistan controlled Kashmir in April 2018
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ):
Purpose:
They exterminate Shia and Muslims and remove region of western influence and they establish an Islamic state under sharia
Operation Areas:
They are present in Karachi which is the capital of Sindh province. Their cells are across the country primarily in Punjab and Baluchistan provinces.

Harkat- ul-Mujahidin (HUM):
Purpose:
They annex Kashmir to Pakistan. They establish an Islamic state in Kashmir.

Operation Areas:
Their headquarters are in Pakistan and they are heavily active in southern areas and Kashmir in April 2018
Transnational Issues
Disputes-International:
Various talks and confidence building measure continuously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir particularly since October 2005 earthquake in region Kashmir- nevertheless remains the site of world’s largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the facto administration of china, India and Pakistan
Refuges and Internally Displaced Persons:
Refuges (country of origin) 2.58-2.68 million (1.4 million registered, 1.18- 1.28 million under documented (Afghanistan) (2017).

IDPs:
249,000 primarily those who remain displaced counter terrorism and counter insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed won state groups in federally administered tribal areas and Khyber Pakhtunwa province more than 1 million displaced in northern Waziristan in 2014. The individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods in 2017.

Trafficking in Persons:
Current Situation:
Pakistan’s trafficking problem is bounded labor in agriculture and to lesser extent fishing, mining and carpet making. Women are forced into marriages. Pakistan adults migrate to gulf state and African and European states for low skilled jobs and sometimes becomes victims of forced labor.

References
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.htmlhttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#325https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#279https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#288https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#335https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#402https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#345https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#296https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html#326