Many centuries ago genetic engineering has been occurring around 12,000 BC, it is the direct transfer of DNA from an organism to another organism and was done by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1972. Genetic engineering also called as the genetic modification, it is where scientist manipulates a gene by the use of genetic technology, it is use to change the genetic makeup of a cell. Due to modernisation nowadays, genetic engineering is being use – do not use this phrase in the fields of medicine where its benefit is the production of genetically modified substances to treat certain. The first ever genetically modified organism is the bacteria. Where it is being used in the production of pure human protein for the use in medicine (Reference). Organisms are being genetically modified using the technology called the recombinant DNA, where its process is to manipulate an organism’s DNA to create products or substances that is being later used in the market to treat certain diseases. According to a report “The synthetic biology market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 28.2% during the forecast period from 2018 to 2025. The market for synthetic biology is estimated to reach US$ 56,044.9 Mn in 2025.”(Med gadget, 2004-2018). Though the process gained a lot of negative feedbacks, researchers and scientist still thinks that genetically modified medicines are advantageous and should be accepted. it is being provided by scientist that one of the benefits of genetic engineering to humans are the treatments to a certain disease like diabetes, growth hormone deficiency and the hepatitis virus. But how can humans benefit to genetic engineering in terms of treatments to the said diseases?
One of the benefits of genetic engineering to humans is the genetically modified bacterium whereas it is used to produce a synthetic insulin. Peptide hormone or the Insulin is naturally secreted from the human pancreas where its function is to control the production of sugar or the glucose. Reports shows that,” 9.3% of Americans had diabetes in 2012, and rates are on the rise. (study.com,2018). Diabetic patients are those people who lacked in natural insulin production or the secretion of natural insulin is not working – rephrase to be more scientific. That’s why scientist came up with the genetically modified insulins to provide their lack of insulin production. the first ever genetically modified insulin is the Humulin where it was submitted by Eli Lilly & Co. genetically modified insulins are made using the process called recombinant DNA (rDNA), where scientist build human insulin in the lab. Then removes a loop of bacterial DNA known as the plasmids then they insert the human insulin in the plasmid and returns it in to the bacteria cell and puts bacteria cell in a large fermentation tank (Nlm.nih.gov, N/A???) – GOOD but rephrase . However, natural insulin that humans produce are safer and not high at risk rather than the genetically modified insulins, people would really choose natural over synthetic. but people nowadays are being abusive to their health, such as the high intake of sugar that makes the secretion of insulin to drop which leads to diabetes and increases the cases of diabetes not just in America but all over the country. Genetically modified insulins are claimed to be effective and rapid in treating diabetes as according to U.S food and drug administration” it has been proven(Humulin) both safe and efficacious for millions of patients” (U.S food and drug administration, DATE). Some people think that the genetically modified insulin is a new substance that can affect the human body negatively, prior to that issue they didn’t know that the insulin protein produced in the genetically modified insulin is similar with the insulin protein that is being produced in a healthy human body as the only difference is that the proteins are being genetically modified to produce a well and enhanced substance that can be used to treat diabetes – who thinks this???.
Another benefit of genetic engineering in medicine is the synthesising of human growth hormone to produce treatment for growth hormone deficiency. The natural growth hormone or the somatotropin is a peptide hormone that is responsible for human growth, cell reproduction and cell regeneration. But some people were born with problems in terms of production of the natural growth hormone in their pituitary glands, which leads to growth hormone deficiency disease associated with not normal human growth or dwarfism. Human’s natural growth hormone production can be affected by some factors such as obesity and fasting. Statistics shows that “50,000 adults in the United States where experiencing growth hormone deficiency with 6,000 new cases every year” (Dr.João Jr,n/a). Using genetic engineering, scientist came up with a new substance called the synthetic growth hormone that can help treating patients with the said disease. It is made by synthesising HGH (what is this?) by cloning the HGH gene and then inserting Cdna (what is this?) gene into E-coli for the gene to be purified and translated (growth hormone network, N/A). it has been proved by researchers that the use of synthetic growth hormone is effective in treating growth hormone deficiency according to a chief investigator in human trials Dr. Selna Kaplan in an article of New York Times “In the clinical trials, Protropin- where did this come from need to explain earlier growth hormone tripled the average growth rate of children with growth-hormone deficiency during the first year, and more than doubled growth rates in years two and