People?s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
University of Sheikh Larbi Tbessi_Tebessa_
Faculty of letters and languages
Departement of Letters and English Language
The jury member:
Miss ……………. University of Tebessa President
Miss Asma Dwaibeya University of Tebessa Supervisor
Miss ……………… University of Tebessa Examiner
Date of Viva ………
Academic Year: 2018 _2019
The first and utmost thanks are to Allah, who helped us, guided and gave us
strength to accomplish this dissertation.
We are so grateful to our Supervisor Miss Asma Douaibia for her kind support and
encouragement. She is a dedicated teacher and deserves all the gratitude from us for her
unforgettable, boundless support.
Thanks must be given to the head of department and all our teachers in Cheikh AlArbi Tebessi University, for their patience and guidance, they were wonderful whether through their
attitudes toward the students, or through their devotion in work.
Special thanks should be expressed to all those who work in the special school of deaf and hard of hearing students in Bakarya center in Tebessa. The director of the special school, Mr Zoglami Tayeb, the teacher of English Miss Mehyeddine Bouthaina, the psychologist Miss Soumaya, the teacher of the kindergarten Mrs Iman. They were so kind and helpful.
Thank you all
This work is dedicated to
To my Mother,
Whose sacrifices, love, and patience made this possible.
To my Father,
Who enlightens my way, and supports me.
To my sisters Samra,Soaad,Zina, Fatima and their respectively husbands
To my brothers Maammar, Rachid,Hamid and their wives. Salim, Abdelwahab and Azzeddine For their endless support all through the progress of this work. To all my nephews and nieces whom they are so special to me
To all my teachers throughout my study, my source of inspiration and light
To my partner in this dissertation Ilhem
For her collaborative work
To all my friends whom I love so much
To all those,
Who gave me help and support I needed while working on this dissertation.
Bless you All
To you my queen: Mother; without your love kindheartedness and patience, all the words cannot describe my love to You.
To you my King: Father; I cannot express my gratefulness, for your carefulness and tenderness towards me.
To you: Dear Sisters Hayet, Hanen? Iness and brothers : Salim, Mohamed, Hicham, and SamiAli, Chams, Saddam, Taki ,a without your support and love, I could not finish my work.
To all my nephews and nieces
To my Partner in this work SABRINA .Thank you a lot for everything.To all my friends without exception. To all the Students and to all who wish to read my work; I owe you all the pleasure
Dedicated to all Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Ilhem and Sabrina
Table of Figures
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1 PAGEREF _Toc512078097 h 26Figure 2 PAGEREF _Toc512078098 h 27Figure 3 PAGEREF _Toc512078099 h 34Figure 4 PAGEREF _Toc512078100 h 34Figure 5 PAGEREF _Toc512078101 h 35Figure 6 PAGEREF _Toc512078102 h 36Figure 7 PAGEREF _Toc512078103 h 37Figure 8 PAGEREF _Toc512078104 h 38Figure 9 PAGEREF _Toc512078105 h 44Figure 10 PAGEREF _Toc512078106 h 45Figure 11 PAGEREF _Toc512078107 h 46Figure 12 PAGEREF _Toc512078108 h 46Figure 13 PAGEREF _Toc512078109 h 47Figure 14 PAGEREF _Toc512078110 h 48Figure 15 PAGEREF _Toc512078111 h 59
Table of Content
TOC o “1-3” h z u
General Introduction PAGEREF _Toc511038394 h 51.Background to the Study PAGEREF _Toc511038395 h 52.Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc511038396 h 83.Aim of the Study PAGEREF _Toc511038397 h 94.Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc511038398 h 105.Statement of the Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc511038399 h 106.Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc511038400 h 117.Structure of the Study PAGEREF _Toc511038401 h 11Chapter One: The notion of Deafness and Hard of hearing PAGEREF _Toc511038402 h 13Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc511038403 h 131. Special educational needs PAGEREF _Toc511038404 h 142. Deafness PAGEREF _Toc511038405 h 143. Deaf PAGEREF _Toc511038406 h 154. Hard of Hearing PAGEREF _Toc511038407 h 165. Hearing Impaired PAGEREF _Toc511038408 h 166. Classification of Hearing Loss PAGEREF _Toc511038409 h 176.1The Educational Classification PAGEREF _Toc511038410 h 176.2The physiological classification PAGEREF _Toc511038411 h 186.3The medical classification PAGEREF _Toc511038412 h 196.4Time Classification: PAGEREF _Toc511038413 h 217. Perspectives on Deafness PAGEREF _Toc511038414 h 218. Causes of Hearing loss PAGEREF _Toc511038415 h 229. Effects of Deafness PAGEREF _Toc511038416 h 2310. Means of Communication Used by Deaf Students PAGEREF _Toc511038417 h 2410.1 Sign Language PAGEREF _Toc511038418 h 2410. 1.1 Sign Language Vs Spoken Language PAGEREF _Toc511038419 h 2510.1.2 American Sign Language PAGEREF _Toc511038420 h 2610.1.3 British Sign Language PAGEREF _Toc511038421 h 2710.1.4 Algerian Sign Language PAGEREF _Toc511038422 h 2810.2 Lip-reading PAGEREF _Toc511038423 h 2910.3 Fingerspelling PAGEREF _Toc511038424 h 3010.4 Gestures, Facial Expressions and Body language PAGEREF _Toc511038425 h 3110.5 Sign Language Interpreters PAGEREF _Toc511038426 h 314. Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students PAGEREF _Toc511038427 h 324.1 Teaching Methods PAGEREF _Toc511038428 h 324.1.1 Oral / Aural Method PAGEREF _Toc511038429 h 324.1.2 Manual Method PAGEREF _Toc511038430 h 334.1.3 Total communication method (TC): PAGEREF _Toc511038431 h 334.1.4 Bilingual –Bicultural Method PAGEREF _Toc511038432 h 334.2 Deaf Students in the Learning Process PAGEREF _Toc511038433 h 344.2.1 Visual learning PAGEREF _Toc511038434 h 344.2 .2 Cooperative Learning PAGEREF _Toc511038435 h 344.2.3 Motivational Learning PAGEREF _Toc511038436 h 355. Communication Technologies and D/HH Students PAGEREF _Toc511038437 h 375.1 Hearing aids PAGEREF _Toc511038438 h 375.2 Cochlear Implants PAGEREF _Toc511038439 h 375.3 Induction Loops PAGEREF _Toc511038440 h 385.4 Captioning PAGEREF _Toc511038441 h 395.5 FM System PAGEREF _Toc511038442 h 405.6 Telephone Devices PAGEREF _Toc511038443 h 405.7 Alerting Devices PAGEREF _Toc511038444 h 41Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc511038445 h 41Chapter Two: English as a Foreign Language for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students PAGEREF _Toc511038446 h 43Introduction PAGEREF _Toc511038447 h 431. Language acquisition, development and deafness PAGEREF _Toc511038448 h 441.1 .Deafness and first (Sign) Language Acquisition PAGEREF _Toc511038449 h 451.2 Deafness and Second Language Acquisition PAGEREF _Toc511038450 h 461.3Deafness and Foreign Language Acquisition PAGEREF _Toc511038451 h 462. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students PAGEREF _Toc511038452 h 472.1 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language for D/HH Students PAGEREF _Toc511038453 h 472.2 Strategies of Teaching and Learning English as Foreign Language for Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Students PAGEREF _Toc511038454 h 482.2.1 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language via Signing (Sign Language) PAGEREF _Toc511038455 h 492.2.2 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language via Cueing (Cued Speech) PAGEREF _Toc511038456 h 502.2.3 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language via Speaking PAGEREF _Toc511038457 h 522.2.4 Teaching and learning English speaking Skill PAGEREF _Toc511038458 h 522.2.5 Teaching and Learning English Reading Skill PAGEREF _Toc511038459 h 522.2.6 Teaching and Learning English Writing Skill PAGEREF _Toc511038460 h 532.2.7 Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary PAGEREF _Toc511038461 h 533. Teaching and Learning difficulties of English as a Foreign Language for D/HH students PAGEREF _Toc511038462 h 543.1 The Problem of Special Education Vs Mainstream Education PAGEREF _Toc511038463 h 563.2 Difficulty of Learning English vocabulary PAGEREF _Toc511038464 h 563.3 Difficulties in Speaking and Listening Skills PAGEREF _Toc511038465 h 573.4 Difficulties in Reading and Writing PAGEREF _Toc511038466 h 583.5 The Curriculum Content PAGEREF _Toc511038467 h 593.6 The Lack of Trained and Specialized Teachers PAGEREF _Toc511038468 h 593.7 The Lack of School Facilities, Instructional Materials and Equipments PAGEREF _Toc511038469 h 604. English as a Foreign Language Situation in Algeria (The Case of D/HH Students) PAGEREF _Toc511038470 h 60Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc511038471 h 63
General IntroductionAristotle once said: “The ear is the organ of education”. Ear plays a vital role in the education process since it enables the access of auditory information as well as the language be it first, second or foreign. Despite the lack of their auditory input,deaf and hard of hearing students nowadays have the right to learn English as a foreign language just like their hearing peers since English- as the world lingua franca- provides them with a full access to the modern world. Deaf and hard –of –hearing students make a special community of people who share the same characteristics that make them different from other people due to their special way of communication. It is difficult for them to learn how to speak because simply they cannot hear sounds. This, therefore, may affect both teaching and learning process of English as a foreign language and in order to overcome the difficulties that encounter both teachers and deaf and hard of hearing students, teachers must adopted effective teaching strategies.
Background to the StudyLearning foreign languages by deaf and hard- of- hearing students is still an under researched area due to the complex nature of this topic and the question was about whether deaf and hard of hearing students should take a foreign language or no? Teaching a second or foreign language assumes that the learner is already qualified in using the first language but this is not the case for deaf and hard of hearing learners (Kontra, Csizér &Piniel). Generally, sign language is the first language of deaf, the spoken language of the country is their second language and English is the third language what leads to several problems that hinder the learning of foreign language by deaf and hard of hearing students. Learning foreign language by this special category is the subject of long standing debate between education experts and speech therapists who consider deafness as a sensory deficit and those who consider DHH students as a linguistic and cultural community. Based on the first view, deafness is a disability that prevents effective learning of foreign language. Thus, the focus should be oriented toward the national language instead of foreign language and it is irrelevant to teach them a third language while the majority of them still struggle to learn the national language. On the other hand, DHH students, as being a linguistic and cultural community, have the right to learn foreign languages just like their hearing peers and according to the defenders of this view if the sign language is used in teaching foreign languages DHH students would perform better.(Bedoin, 2011,p.162).English language today becomes the world’s lingua franca (Dotter, 2008), it is the most frequently learned and used foreign language in the world. Deaf and hard of hearing people have the right to learn this latter just like their hearing peers and in the light of this issue,Domagala-Zy?k (2016) said:
Deaf and severely hard-of-hearing persons are not only special needs learners; they have special history, they are special linguistically, culturally and socially.Theyneed to use foreign language just like their peers if they want to enjoy the same benefit of the technical advancement and globalization of our times, yet they cannot take part in the same foreign language (FL) education: the approaches, methods and materials developed are inadequate and teacher trained to teach hearing learners are ill-equipped (p.1).
A number of previous studies have been done investigating the issue of learning English language by DHH students but all of them were from foreign countries. Precursors were from the European countries such as: in Brno (Van?k Martin 2009), (Bc.Vladimír Nezda?il 2011), (Romana Hoferková 2012), French ( D. Bedoin 2011), and in Hungary (Piniel, Csizér, ; Kontra 2014). The majority of these studies were done in special schools or universities involving teachers or DHH students as participants using questionnaires or interviews as instruments for collecting data. Despite the fact that the focus was not on identifying the difficulties of learning English as a foreign language by DHH students, most of these studies have reported numerous difficulties facing DHH students in the learning of foreign language. Van?k Martin (2009) used an interview to identify and conceptualize the process and variables affecting third language learning. The finding indicates that the hurdles to the acquisition of auditory-oral languages are not related just to deafness but to the language environment and educational process. Bc.Vladimír Nezda?il (2011) studied how useful the Total Physical Response and suggestopidia methods are in teaching English language to deaf learners by using a qualitative research including interviews and observations. In the same place (Brno) another research was conducted by Romana Hoferková (2012) studying the learning of English as a foreign language by Deaf students. This work focused more on the spoken language. The findings indicate that the hindrances in learning the language exist in vocabulary knowledge and metacognition.
Using three sources of data including questionnaires, interviews and in class observations, Bedoin (2011) tackled the issue of foreign language and deafness from the perspective of teachers by introducing the difficulties of them as being FL teachers of DHH in mainstream French school as well as the strategies used by them. The findings show that teachers have considerable role in the process of learning FLs in that they use different strategies to overcome the difficulties of teaching FL to DHH students and they must be eclectic in choosing the strategies that benefit their learners. Piniel, Csizér, and Kontra (2014) ,using a mixed method study, have talked the issue from the other side of the coin by introducing learning FLs by DHH and exploring how they perceive the challenge of learning FLin Hungary- a small European country-. The result showed a considerable aspiration of DHH students to enhance the learning of FLs which reflects their desire to learn FLs and based on the findings; producing and comprehending speech in the FL constitute the main challenge for them.
Based on the literature of teaching English as foreign language as well as the successful studies and researchers done concerning this issue, it is evident that there are no psychological or methodological hindrances to teaching foreign languages to deaf and hard of hearing students and it is reported that D/HH students show the same intellectual capacities compared with their hearing peers (Domagala- Zy?k, 2012, p.53) but these finding should not be over generalized as she continues. With nineteen (19) years experience of teaching English as a foreign language to D/HH students, Domagala-Zy?k has done much to fill the gaps arisen from the lack of studies investigating this issue (Domagala-Zy?k 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016).At the 12th Conference of the European Society for the Study of English (ESSE) in Kosice in 2014 many studies have been conducted investigating the issues of learning English by deaf and hard of hearing impairment and they were from France, Norway and Serbia. This international special seminar was entitled English as a Foreign Language for Student with Special Educational Needs-Exceptional English for Exceptional Learners. The presented topics in this seminar are published as fully-fledged articles in a form of chapters in a book by Ewa Domagala-Zysk and edit H. Kontra.Ewa Domagala-Zysk (2016).
Despite the variety of studies addressing the issue of learning foreign language by deaf students, all of them were from foreign developed countries where the learning circumstances are not the same as Algeria. These latter raises the interest to conduct a further research to understand the way deaf students learn English in our country and to identify the difficulties that face both deaf and hard of hearing students and teachers as well as the strategies used by teacher to overcome them.
Statement of the ProblemDeaf and hard of hearing students have specific characteristics that differentiate them from normal hearing students due to their specific way of communication. These latter raises the curiosity to know the learning strategies used in their learning and the hindrances that may face them during learning a foreign language specifically English. The researchers did not find previous studies in Algeria investigating this issue, what makes this research important to tackle because it will help this kind of students that are marginalized. As result it may lead to a future research in this country that enhance the situation of Deaf students and raise the interest of educators and researchers to keep searching on what benefit this category of students. According to Bernt (2006) searching for more effective English teaching methodologies for deaf students is an ongoing effort and the instructional experimentation is needed. By investigating the situation of deaf students, this research is conducted to study the learning and teaching difficulties of English as a foreign language for Deaf/hard of hearing students.
Aim of the StudySpecial education is an essential topic to study because it will helps students with disabilities as well as teachers. As learners of English who are interested in everything related to it particularly special education, investigating the issue of learning English by deaf and hard of hearing students in special school in Bakarya in Tebessa is a good opportunity that will give us as researchers the chance to combine these two fields. It will help us to get a better understanding about the process of learning English by Deaf /hard of hearing students. This research is intended to tackle the situation of Deaf /hard of hearing students of English in Children with hearing impaired school in Bakarya , Tebessa . The main aim is to shed the light on the difficulties that encounter teachers as well as deaf and hard of hearing students while learning English in Center of Bakarya and understanding the strategies and techniques that are used to them.
Research Questions The research work aims at answering the following main question:
What type of obstacles do teachers as well as deaf and hard of hearing students face during the learning process of English as a foreign language?
Subsequently, the following sub-questions are raised:
What are the difficulties that encounter teachers while teaching English as a foreign language to Deaf and hard of students?
Whatare the difficultiesdo deaf and hard of hearing students face in learning English as a foreign language?
What are the teaching strategies that might be held by teachers to overcome the difficulties of English language learning?
Statement of the HypothesisIt is hypothesized that the learning and teaching are mainly due to:
Lack of training may be the main difficulty that encounters teachers while teaching English as a foreign language to Deaf and hard of students
Students’ difficulties are mainly due to the lack of materials including visual aids, listening aids, support services, and interpreters
Teachers may create specific techniques and adopt certain communication means to fit the needs of D/HH students.
In order to answer the research questions and check to what extent the hypotheses stated above are true, the researchers provide a case study in a special school for deaf and hard of hearing students. Three means of data collection were used: (1) a questionnaire for 36 deaf and hard of hearing middle school students, (2) An interview with the English teacher in the school and(3) classroom observations.
Structure of the StudyThe present dissertation is divided into two parts; a theoretical part which contains two chapters. The first chapter is devoted to give general information about deaf and hard of hearing students, how they communicate and how they are educated. The second chapter is about language acquisition and deafness, it also focus on teaching and learning English as a foreign language to deaf and hard of hearing students and the difficulties that face them. The second part is the empirical part, which is devoted for data collection and analysis of the research.
Chapter One: The notion of Deafness and Hard of hearingIntroduction:Deaf and hard of Hearing students have the right to receive equal education services just like their hearing peers. Education should be there to supply all the services needed for enabling special education learners to manage their activities, so that they can collaborate and communicate with hearing people throughout their lives. Being a kind of special education needs, deaf/ hard of hearing students also have this right. As a way to make sense of this study and its outcomes, this chapter is devoted to explore the main concepts and terminology such as special education needs, deafness and its causes, degrees and categories….The means of communication used by deaf students are stated. Furthermore, the issue of deaf education and the approaches used for educating and communicating with them are also mentioned.
1. Special educational needs: people tend to learn differently due to the disabilities that they may have which necessitate special educational services, care and assistance. Special education needs is an umbrella term covering a wide range of disabilities and difficulties. In the educational context, this term is defined according to the Education for Persons with Special Educational Needs (EPSEN) Act as:
… a restriction in the capacity of the person to participate in and benefit fromeducation on account of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health orlearning disability, or any other condition which results in a person learning differentlyfrom a person without that condition. (NCSE, 2014, p.10)
According to the ESPEN Act the special education needs may arise from different areas of disability including physical, sensory, mental health and learning disability or any condition that leads the person to learn differently from their normal peers. This definition leads to the importance of defining another term which is disability. Disability is the inability to do something; it refers to the absence of competent physical, intellectual, or moral power which in turns hinders the person’s capacity to do something.
2. Deafness: Hearing is the ability to perceive sounds clearly and the range of normal hearing for humans is between 20 and 20.000 Hz, the case is not the same for hearing impaired people (Marschark, Lang, ; Albertini, 2002, p. 46). Deafness is a general term that covers the whole range of hearing loss including deaf and hard of hearing, it is a kind of physical disability. The person who is not able to hear is called deaf and the one who hears with great difficulty is called hearing impaired or hard of hearing. (Nodoushan, 2008, p. 16). Rose et al. (2008) define deaf and hard of hearing as “a diminished sensitivity to sound, or hearing loss that is expressed in terms of standard audio logical measures and according to them hearing loss has the potential to affect educational, communicative, or social functioning which leads to the need for special education instruction and services”(p.7).
When speaking about deafness or hearing loss, two words appear to have a relation with them including mute and dumb. Thus, one may say deaf and dumb or deaf-mute. In fact it is a misconception that if deaf person cannot hear, he or she cannot speak and the inability to hear does not mean the inability to speak for instance a person who lost his or her hearing at the age of 40 he or she is not able to hear but he can speak (Barth ; Manero, 2009). Barth and Manero (2009) continue in this context “Through speech therapy, people deaf from birth may be able to speak, perhaps the tone of voice and volume are not exactly the same as with a hearing person’s, but sounds and speech are emitted.”(p.18).3. Deaf:According Siple, Greer, Ray, andHolkomb (2004)deaf are group of people who share common values, norms, traditions, language, and behaviors and communicate by using sign language. Those people do not see themselves as having lost the ability to hear and do not consider themselves as disable. They live as normal people and celebrate their culture because of sharing the same history and language. Deaf people are considered as a linguistic minority within the American culture. Siple et al. (2004)also distinguish between Deaf, hard of hearing, and deafened. These three terms refer to the one who has audio logical status but the two groups (hard of hearing and deafened) do not see themselves as a member of deaf community because their first language is English. (p.1).Aperson who has profound hearing loss is a deaf one according to the Canadian Association. Most of these people communicate by using a sign language and it is their first language, especially for students who acquire the American Sign Language. It is their first language and the English language is the second one.
4. Hard of Hearing: there are many definitions of this term; Horton (2015) defines it as: “is a term used to describe those who have hearing loss, usually acquired post –lingually and whose communication mode is by speech. This term also includes those people who have become deafened later in their life”(P.14).Unlike Deaf people who use sign language to communicate, hard of hearing people depends on their national language as means of communication and they identify themselves with the national community (Domagala – Zy?k, 2015, P.19).
5. HearingImpaired: Due to its offensive use this term is less used, but it is more used in media and society. Themore acceptable generic phrase is “deaf and hard of hearing” to refer to all people with a hearing loss (Siple, Greer, Ray, ; Holkomb, 2004, p.1). Moreover, they state that “Within the Deaf culture, the term “hearing impaired” is often seen as offensive. It suggests that Deaf people are “broken” or “inferior” because they do not hear” (p. 1).Deaf and Hard of Hearing (D/HH) is the object of this study and it is more acceptable phrase to refer to people with hearing loss. Thus, it will be used throughout this dissertation.
-Hearing Loss – Any degree of impairment of the ability to apprehend sound (i.e. threshold
elevation from average hearing threshold)
-Hearing Impairment – Loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure
or function of the auditory system
-Hearing Disability – Any restrictions or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or
within the range considered normal for human being in terms of hearing
-Hearing Handicapped – The disadvantage in terms of hearing for an individual, resulting from an
(out of use) impairment or a disability, that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role
that is normal ( depending on age, gender, and social and cultural factors)
for that individual
Hard of Hearing – Refers to people with mild to severe degree of hearing of hearing loss with
gradual and / or sudden onset
-Deafness – Refers to people with pre-lingual hearing impairment of significant level
(severe to profound) who prefer sign language as their first choice of
communication and consider themselves as a part of ‘Deaf community’
with capital D to emphasis their identity
-Deafened – Refers to people with profound degree of hearing loss which is acquired
after language acquisition with either sudden or gradual onset
-deafness – General term used to refer to whole range of medical conditions from hard
of hearing to profoundly deaf and deafened
Table 1: Terminology linked to deafness. (Manchaiah, V.K.C;Stephens, D, 2013, p.8).6. Classification of Hearing LossHearing loss can be classified according to different points of views including the educational classification, the physiological classification, the medical classification and the time when the hearing loss occurred:
6.1The Educational ClassificationWithin the educational context, a person with hearing loss can be classified as deaf or hard of hearing. Deaf students are those who suffer from hearing impairment more than 70 decibels and they need special techniques and services in their education. Hard of hearing on the other hand, means those students with hearing difficulties or impairments ranging from 30 to less than 70 decibels. Those students can absorb and receive the educational curricula designed for normal students. The Deaf students has a profound hearing loss and they are incapable to hear the spoken language while the hard of hearing students have the ability to hear speech with or without the assistance of hearing aids (Adams ; Rohring, 2004, p.13).
6.2The physiological classification:
The physiological classification refers to the degree of hearing loss. Itincludes seven categories:
Normal Hearing: Students can detect all speech sounds even at a soft conversation level. The student’s hearing would be plotted in the -10 to +15 decibel range on an audiogram.
Minimal Loss: Students may have difficulty hearing faint or distant speech. Peer conversation and teacher instructions presented too rapidly, particularly in noisy classrooms, are likely to result in missed information. Loss is between 16 to 25 decibels.
Mild: Student may miss up to 50% of class discussions especially if voices are soft or the environment is noisy. Students will require the use of a hearing aid or personal FM system. Loss is between 26 to 40 decibels.
Moderate: Classroom conversation from 3 to 5 feet away can be understood if the structure and vocabulary is controlled. Hearing aids and/or personal FM systems are essential. Specific attention will need to be directed to language development, reading and written language. Loss is between 4l to 55 decibels.
Moderate to Severe: without amplification students with this degree of loss can miss up to 100% of speech information. Full time use of amplification is essential. They will probably require additional help in all language based academic subjects. Loss is between 56 to 70 decibels.
Sever: students can only hear loud noises at close distances. They require individual hearing aids, intensive auditory training and specialized instructional techniques in reading, language, and speech development. Loss is between 71 to 90 decibels.
Profound: for all practical purposes these students rely on vision rather than hearing for processing information. If you have a student in this category, he or she is usually a candidate for signing systems and specialized instructional techniques in reading, speech, and language development. A loss of 91 decibels or more is described as profound (“Hard of Hearing ,”2006,2007).
Classification Degree of hearing loss
Table 2: Classification of hearing loss
6.3The medical classificationFrom a medical perspective, deafness can be classified into conductive, involving the middle ear; sensorineural, involving the inner ear and mixed, involving both. Conductive hearing loss occurs when there isan obstruction to the flow of sounds energy from the atmosphere to the inner ear. It is caused by mechanical problems at the level of the external and middle ear also this type may occur due to a number of causes including wax impaction in ear canal, atresia of ear canal and otitis media with effusion. This type can be treated either medically or surgically. Whereas, sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is damage in the inner ear (cochlear) or in the auditory nerve and central nervous system auditory structures (retro cochlear). The causes of this type are varied including congenital infections, genetic factors and presbyacusis. For Mixed hearing loss, it is the combination of both conductive 819157334885Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1
Figure 181915195961000and sensori-neural hearing loss. It may also be linked with the development abnormalities that affect both the middle ear and cochlea. (Swanepoel, D. W &Laurent, C.pp.1-3)
Figure 1: Anatomy of the EarRetrieved from ©Audiology Australia Ltd 2014
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Hearing loss related to structure of ear Adopted from Swanepoel, D. W andLaurent, C.p.2
6.4Time Classification: Deafness can be pre-lingual or post-lingual. Pre-lingual deafness occurs before the acquisition of language, whereas post-lingual deafness occurs after the acquisition of language(Nodoushan, 2008, p.16)
7. Perspectives on Deafness Deafness seems an easy word to be explained and understood but in fact it is not. Deafness can be viewed from different perspectives including the pathological (medical), and the cultural perspective. According to the pathological / medical perspective, deafness is viewed as a physical disability or an illness which requires treatment, whereby “The pathological perspective views deafness as an audio logical deficit that needs to be repaired, something is wrong, something is broken and therefore “impaired.” (Barth & Manero Soto, 2009, p.18). In contrast to the pathological / medical perspective, the Social/ cultural perspective does not view Deafness -with the capital letter D- as an impairment or illness, but rather as a difference. Deaf people considered themselves as linguistically and culturally minority group who share the same language, culture and identity. This perspective defines Deafness as sociolinguistic group sharing common language and culture rather than being handicapped. (Adams & Rohring, 2004, p.7). The British Deaf Leader Dr. Paddy Ladd (2003) puts it this way: “We wish for the recognition of our right to exist as a linguistic minority group…Labeling us as disabled demonstrates a failure to understand that we are not disabled in any way within our own community” (as qtd in Barth &Manero,2009, p. 19).
8. Causes of Hearing lossHearing loss can be caused by a number of factors including genetic and non-genetic factors such as aging, ear infections, exposure to overly noise, and injury or trauma. Duthey (2013) in her background paper stated a number of causes including ear infections which can beviral, bacterial or parasitic infections. Children are more likely to have ear infection than adults as the Eustachian tube, the passage between the middle ear and the back of the throat is smaller and more horizontal than in adults. This makes it more likely to be blocked by inflammation from infections in the ear which blocks the Eustachian tube and hinders the ventilation and drainage of the middle ear, thus preventing drainage of purulent fluids. The inability to access to health care services especially in poor countries is another factor that leads children to become deaf or hard of hearing. These infections are influenza, meningitis, measles, viral encephalitis, chicken pox, mumps or other viral infections. One example of this is the sub-Saharan region in Africa where epidemics of meningococcal meningitis happen leaving people suffer from hearing loss. (Duthey, 2013, pp.7-10)
Congenital Hearing loss indicates that hearing loss is present at birth and it can be caused by genetic or non-genetic/ acquired factors. The non- genetic factors are linked to pregnancy and birth delivery and they include maternal infections during pregnancy, such as rubella and herpes simplex virus, prematurity, low birth weight,Cranio-facial abnormalities, birth injuries, toxins including certain drugs and alcohol consumed by the mother during pregnancy, complications associated with severe jaundice in the newborn baby often due to maternal-fetal blood type incompatibility, maternal diabetes, lack of oxygen (anoxia). On the other hand, genetic factors can be present at birth or develop later on in life and they can be described as autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant. Autosomal recessive hearing loss is when both parents carry the recessive gene and pass it along to the child and this is more likely to happen in marriages between cousins while autosomal dominant hearing loss happens when one parent carries an abnormal gene and this latter can cause hearing loss even though the matching gene from the other parent is normal.(Duthey, 2013, pp.7-10)
Injury or trauma including head injury, acoustic trauma, ear and brain tumors which affect the sensori-neural may also cause Deafness. Another cause of hearing loss that leads to the damage of the peripheral and central auditory system, thus causing hearing impairment is aging. When hearing loss is caused by age it is termed presbyacusis meaning the inability of ears due to the age. Exposure to high levels and excessive duration of noise such as headphones is also reported to be another cause of hearing loss because it leads to the damage and loss of outer and inner hair cells. Furthermore, medications and other chemicals that are toxic to the ear and nutritional deficiency are as well two important factors causing hearing loss. Certain medications are considered ototoxic and can cause damage of hair cells in the inner ear and this includes those medications that are used to treat serious disease like cancer and malnutrition leads to the deficiency of Iodine which in turn causes hearing loss (Duthey, 2013, pp.7-10).
9. Effects of Deafness Deafness, as sensory deficit, has many negative impacts and consequences at the educational, social and medical level. Starting from the individuals themselves- who carry this sensory deficit- the feeling of loneliness, depression and isolation, are the major impacts of deafness. It is worthy to say that education constitutes the main challenge for D/HH students in that deafness affects the way they learn. In addition, deafness may has negative social and economic consequences upon families, communities and countries as Mathers, Andrew, and Marisol stated: “consequences of hearing impairment include inability to interpret speech sounds, often producing a reduced ability to communicate, delay in language acquisition, economic and educational disadvantage, social isolation and stigmatization” ( p. 1).
10. Means of Communication Used by Deaf StudentsIt is a noteworthy that language is the main vehicle by which we can communicate; it is the motor of life. But this is not a rule. Communication is not achieved just by language. Body, facial expression and hands can also play a vital role in transmitting the messages. Therefore, communication between people especially for people with hearing loss becomes easier.Asa way of breaking the barrier of isolation that may be imposed by hearing loss, deaf people tend to use many communication means including: facial expression,spoken mother tongue, written mother tongue,fingerspelling, gestures, lip-reading, sign language or a combination of all of these strategies.The communication process involves both verbal and nonverbal language and they are complementary. When interaction takes place with D/HH, nonverbal language should be exist, otherwise a meaningful communication with them cannot be achieved because nonverbal language optimizes and supplements the verbal one (Adams & Rohring, 2004, pp.53-54).
10.1Sign LanguageMany deaf people consider sign language as their first language. Signing differs from one country to another. Like all other languages American Sign Language (ASL)is an independent language and it is capable to transmit the message. It has its own punctuation and grammar and can communicate complex theories and concept. “Sign Language is essentially a mental, physical, spatial and kinetic set of activities. The only complete ‘proof’ of a sign language would be a detailed and expert analysis of several hours of moving pictures, i.e. film or video” (Miles, 2009, p.8).Furthermore, sign language users combine hand movements, facial expressions, head and body movements to communicate feelings, intentions, humor, complex, abstract ideas, and more.
10. 1.1 Sign Language Vs Spoken LanguageSevere hearing loss students cannot master spoken language and instead sign language is considered an excellent alternative. Linguistic studies and researches have proven that sign languages are visual-spatial languages that have their own grammatical and linguistic structure .Thus, having a different structure from spoken language; it is an independent language which is passed through from one generation of deaf people to the next. In addition it is proved that sign language is recognized as the first language of deaf people. Sign language depends on the visual channel while spoken language depends on the auditory channel(Tomaszewski, 2001, p.74).The grammar of sign language relies on space, gestures, body language, facial expression, handshapes and movements which play an important role in transmitting the messages (Tomaszewski, 2001, p.68). Comparing with spoken languages, sign languages have also their own accents, dialects and vocabulary Marschark et al. (2002) stated that: “Like spoken languages, signed languages vary. Sign languages have their own accents, dialects, and idiosyncratic vocabulary. Particular signs may be limited to particular regions, schools, or even families.” (p. 76). Sign languages as Marschark et al. continue “consist of a large vocabulary of arbitrary signs, together with a set of rules, or grammar, that govern the formation of individual units, their modification, and their combination into phrases and sentences”(p. 76). Sign language consists of several characteristics including handshapes, movements, and place of articulation and any change ofthese characteristics will entail and affect the meaning of the sign. Furthermore, sign languages can be modified to indicate tenses and numbers. For instance in ASL, the sign of DOGS is done by signing the sign DOG many times to indicate that there are more than one DOG (Marschark et al.,pp.76-77).
Another distinction between sign language and spoken language is the use of classifiers which is present in sign language and absent in spoken language. Classifiers are handshapes that have general purpose or categorical meaning. For instance, an upright 1-hand (a raised index finger) indicates an individual (human); whereas, a 3-hand (made with the thumb up and the first two fingers pointing away from the signers) indicates CAR (Marschark et al. 2002.,p. 77). In Addition to classifiers, sign language has also another distinct feature which is the use of space to indicate time and location. For example, the sign WEEK is made in front of the body and to indicate LAST-WEEK the ASL signer finishes the sign in an arc backwards, towards the right shoulder and to sign NEXT-WEEK he finishes the sign WEEK in an arc forward, out from the body (Marschark et al. 2002, p. 77).
Aspects Spoken Language Sign Language
Elements that are used throat , air ,tongue Hand , body
Resulting Words and sounds Signs and movement
Receiver Ears Eyes
Unit Different words Different signs
Combination Rules of spoken language Rules of sign language
Table 3: The differences between sign and spoken language
10.1.2 American Sign LanguageAmerican Sign Language (ASL) is the primary means of communication used by a large portion of deaf people in United State .It is also called the language of deaf people .ASL has a unique grammar and syntax and is unrelated to English, although it reflects English impacts, it is a visual language that includes many non-verbal features such as gestures, facial expression, and body language (Turkington & E. Sussman, 2004, p.12).They also state that:
“In the United States, variations in ASL can oftenbe traced to different residential schools and educational programs for different deaf communities. Forexample, the segregation of black deaf students in the South resulted in a variation of ASL used by the majority of the white population. It featured different words and even some different grammatical structures” (Turkington & E. Sussman, 2004, p. 12) .
10.1.3 British Sign LanguageBritish sign language (BSL)is a visual language that is used in UK. It involves the use of hands, facial expression and body language. It has its own grammar structure which is different from English. For example, when we wont to ask about the name in English, we use the sentence what is your name? However, in BSL is done by signing the sign ‘name’ then the sign ‘what’ (Palmer, p. 4)
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Thank you by American Sign Language , n.d.,Retrieved from http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/pages-signs/t/thankyou.htm
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Thank you by British Sign Language, n.d., Retrieved fromhttps://www.babysignlanguage.com/dictionary/t/thank-you/10.1.4Algerian Sign LanguageThe Algeria Sign Language which is used in the educational system of deaf students in special schools and it is considered as means of communication for transmitting the knowledge to them. In addition to the sign language the oral method is also used in the educational system. Speaking about the teaching of foreign languages such as French and English languages in Algeria for deaf students, teachers of foreign languages tend to use the French fingerspelling alphabet in the teaching of both French and English language. For teaching English language, teachers do not use the American fingerspelling alphabet nor the British fingerspelling alphabet.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5: Fingerspelling Alphabet used in Algeria, n.d.,Retrieved from
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: The Fingerspelling Alphabet used in teaching foreign languages in Algeria (French and English) ,n.d., Retrieved from http://www.sematos.eu/lsf-en.htm10.2Lip-readingMost teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students favor lip-reading over sign language because the majority of deaf people rely on lip-reading as their method of communication.Horton (2015) states that: “It is a complex art because deaf person must know about the language the other person is speaking; this all means that lip-reading is very difficult for a young child who is born deaf”.Lip-reading is a way of discovering the spoken words by watchingthe speaker’s lips, jaw, and tongue movements. Lip-reading is deriving the meaning from what others said by watching not only to their lips but also to their gestures, facialexpressions, hand movements. Toconclude, lip-reading is not an easy task, it takes time and efforts to learn and use (Horton, 2015 .P.19)
10.3 Fingerspelling Spelling out words in an alphabetical language by using the letters of the manual alphabet is fingerspelling. It is a way of transmitting a clear message, it regards as a method of communication. It can be used alone or together with a sign language (Turkington ; E. Sussman, 2004). Horton (2015) said:
Fingerspelling is using your hands to represent the letters of a writing System. In English, this means using 26 different hand configurations to represent the 26 letters of the English alphabet. As such, fingerspelling is not a signed language in and of itself; rather it is a manual code for representing the letters of the English alphabet(p.4).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7: Finger Spelling Alphabet in American Sign Language
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8: Finger Spelling Alphabet in British Sign Language Retrieved fromWWW.british-sign.co.uk.
10.4Gestures, Facial Expressions and Body languageNonverbal behaviors include three main groups: gestures, facial expressions and body language.Adams and Rohring (2004) stated: “Gesturesinvolve all the movements of the hands, head, or other parts of the body while speaking; it helps the deaf and hard of hearing students to understand what are you say and comprehend the size of spoken words” (p.54). AGesture is also defined as aspecific bodily movement that transfers a particular thought or feelings. It may be made with all the part of the body like the head, shoulders, or even the legs and feet, most are madewith the hands and arms.(Toastmasters International, 2011). Because the human face can express emotion, felling without saying a word, it is named as expressive. The human faces are universal regardless of being deaf or hard of hearing or a normal person because the facial expression of happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, and fear is the same. Body language also called body movements; it is how the receiver can understand what the speaker said with the help of the body. Besides it means the way the person sit, walk, stand, or hold their head can send a wealth of information (Segal, Smith, ;Boose, 2018.Para 5, 6, 7).
10.5Sign Language Interpreters: the act of understanding and translating the spoken language of any language to a sign language or manual language is done by specific specialist or known as interpreters ,such as American Sign Language .It divided into two steps , the first is where the interpreters listens to the spoken message and interprets it into the sign language while the second direction is where the interprets watch the signed language made by a deaf person and translate it into the spoken language for hearing listeners (“Sign Language Interpreting ” )(P.1)
4. Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students4.1 Teaching MethodsEducation is a very important and a difficult task especially for students with special education needs particularly deaf and hard of hearing students. Being Deafdoes not affect student’s intellectual ability to learn. Thus, D/ HH student has the right to study regardless to the type of disability she /he has.Education is defined by the Oxford dictionary as “the teaching or training of people, especially in school. To improve their knowledge and develop their skills”. Using oral or manual method in teaching D/HH students is the subject of long-running debate throughout the history of education of D/HH students. In 1880, the delegate of the Congress of Milan acknowledged the “oral method” as the official method of educating deaf students around the world (Marschark et al., 2002,p. 104). By declaring the “oral method” as the single mode for educating D/HH students, the Congress as Marschark et al. (2002) continue: “ignored the possibility that different children would benefit from different modes of instruction” (p. 104) what leads to the need of integrating different modes of communication to meet the needs of D/HH learners. Based on D/HH education literature there are four main teaching methods including: oral, method, Manual method, total communication method, and bilingual-bicultural method .
4.1.1Oral / Aural Method:stresses the use of residual hearing, speech and lip reading, It is nearly similar to auditory verbal approach, it is called lip-reading or speech reading (Bedoin, 2011, p. 161). The oral method involves teaching students or children who are deaf and hard of hearing using visual information to understand what others said. Adams and Rohring (2004) said: “Individuals promoting the oral–aural communication method stress the useof speech aids, voice, and speech reading skills. People using this methodare discouraged from relying on visual cues except those involved withlip movements used in speech.”(p. 59)
4.1.2Manual Method: is a visual mode which stresses the use of the manual communication including sign language, hand symbols,and gestures. The supporters of this method believe that D/HH people who use signs to communicate are able to develop language and social skills. They also believe that the “knowledge and understanding of language are more important than the ability to speak intelligibly” (Mindel &Vernon, 1987, P. 60, as cited in Adams & Rohring, 2004).
4.1.3Total communication method (TC): : this method calls for the right of D/HH students to use any effective mode of communication including manual, oral and auditory such as, gestures, speech, lip reading, fingerspelling , writingdepending on the D/HH needs. “Total Communication is a philosophy requiring the incorporation of appropriate aural, manual, and oral modes of communication in order to ensure effective communication with and among deaf and hard of hearing persons” (Conference of Executives of American Schools for the Deaf, 1976, p. 358, as cited in Adams & Rohring, 2004). Total communication provides an opportunity to learn all modes of communication. It permits the use of any mode which is easy and understood by D/HH students rather than focusing on one particular method.
4.1.4Bilingual –Bicultural Method: this method combines both sign language and spoken language (used in one country) and calls for the need to integrate both of them in the education of D/HH students. According to the supporters of this approach, the child should be taught in their sign language (which is their natural and first language) and the spoken language used in the country (which is their second language) (Adams & Rohring, 2004, p. 64). Paul and Jackson (1993) (as cited in Adams &Rohring, 2004) said: “deaf students would become bilingual, knowing both English and natural sign language” (p. 64)
4.2 Deaf Students in the Learning ProcessIt is very important for anyone to know about the concept of learning before engaging in its process. Crow and Crow (1973) (as cited in Dharmaja.W, 2015) said: “Learning is the acquisition of habits, knowledge, and attitudes, it involves new ways of doing things, and it operates in an individual’s attempts to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situation. It represents progressive changes in behavior”. The act of conveying information may be seen as a major problem in the learning process of deaf and hard of hearing students. The information is delivered from hearing trainers through a translator. Therefore, the whole process of decoding for DHH is quite long and they can feel left out of classroom communication.
4.2.1Visual learning Deaf and hard of hearing students are visual learners, they recognize and understand the world through their eyes which represent a good alternative to their lack of auditory input. Veditz (1912) (as cited inKuntze, Golos, &Enns, 2014) said, “Deaf people are first, last, and ofall time, people of the eye.” (p. 217). The majority of students enjoy the study when the teachers use pictures, charts, photos , and slides more than the verbal one ,this is what is known visual learning . The most practical way used for deaf students to learn language is print .The process of understanding a sign language for DHH students is too difficult becouse they need to decode the message than understand it . Anderson points to the instruction of teachers which should be better centered on visual means and that voice support should be reduced as much as possible, in order to effectively teach without using the voice. (Anderson ,2000 as cited in Hoferková ,2012).
4.2 .2 Cooperative LearningAccording to Johnson and Johnson model (as cited in Felder &Brent), Cooperative learning is instruction that involves students working in group to achieve certain goalunder specific condition. It includes the following elements ,to Johnson and Johnson model (as cited in Felder &Brent) state that :” the first one is positive interdependence which state that the team member are obliged to help each other and depend on each other to achieve the purpose ;if any one fail to do his /her part , s/he will take all responsibilities because everyone suffer consequences . The second element is individual accountability; all the member of the group are held accountable for doing their share of the work and for the dominance of all the material to be learned. Another item is also introduced by Johnson and Johnson(para,7) .face to face promotive interaction. Although some of the group work are divided and work individually some must be done interactively, with group. Another element is stated, which is appropriateuse of collaborative skills; students are motivated and helped to develop and practice trust –building, communication, andmaking decision. The last principle is group processing. According to this principle members of group when set a list of purposes periodically to determine what they are doing as a group and identify changes they will make to function more effectively in the future”.Deaf and hard of hearing students have several mode of communication and each one prefer to communicate differently ,but communication is still difficult between each other in class .Moreover ,cooperative learning lessons are challenged methods in which the participation of students with different communication needs would be facilitated .
3.2.3Motivational LearningThe significance of motivation itself in the process of learning is clearly stated by Phil Race as cited in Hoferková (2012) in a model of motivational learning. Race’s model is described in four major points. The first is learning by doing; which is about learning by doing activities and practice. The following point is feedbackwhichis about seeing the result; other people’s reaction. Digesting is about highly important element in the learning process. Moreover, he speaks about the internal motivation that makes a person wants to learn something in the first place is called needing /wanting. Race (2010) suggests a number of adjustments which could compensate for the disadvantages for deaf students in learning process which includes:
One of the best ways to protect DHH learner is’ wantingto learn’ by educating teacher as well as learner to answer in sensitive and successful manner to the real needs associated with auditory difficulties.’ Needing to learn’ is another suggestion by Race , who stressed on the importance of intended learning outcomes, evidence descriptors and assessment criteria in print version(p.187).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9: The Motivational Model in 2010 by Phil Race .
5. Communication Technologies and D/HH Students5.1Hearing aids: are devices used to help the hard of hearing to receive sounds. It is used by people who have some residual hearing rather than those who are profoundly deaf. The function of hearing aids in fact is not the same as the function of human ears is. They just amplify all sounds equally. In the case of having residual hearing, hearing aids enables access to the spoken language of hearing people, but in the case of having progressive hearing loss, they facilitate the learning of sign languages and help in maintaining the spoken language skills. For people who have severe hearing loss, they provide sufficient information in support of language development despite the fact that they sometimes cannot provide sufficient information for language comprehension (Marschark et al., 2002, p. 50).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10: Types of Hearing Aids Retrieved from https://www.starkey.com/hearing-aids
Unlike hearing aids which amplify sounds, cochlear implants relate sounds heard in the environment with the nerves that are responsible for carrying that information to the brain. A cochlear implant is inserting a set of electrodes surgically and directly into cochlea, its system contains a micro-processor responsible for generating electronic signals similar to sounds varying in loudness and frequency and sends them to nerve fibers in the cochlea (Marschark et al.,2002, p. 52). The function of cochlear implants is well explained by the National Institution of Health (1995) (as cited in Marschark et al. 2002):
The cochlear implant is an electronic device that, under the appropriate conditions, provides a sense of sounds to persons who are profoundly hearing impaired or deaf. It does not restore normal hearing, but it can help the user understand speech and perceive sounds from the environment. The vast majority of adults who are deaf and have cochlear implants derive substantial benefit from them when they are used in conjunction with speech reading, and a considerable number of implanted individuals can understand speech without visual cues. Benefits also have been observed in children,including those who were born deaf or lost their hearing before learning spoken language.(p.4)
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11: Cochlear Implants Retrieved from http://www.medel.com/image-gallery/5.3Induction Loops: another technology used to teach deaf and hard of hearing students is induction loops which is defined by the guide of induction loop as “is made up of one or more loops of wire, driven by an amplifier, to produce a magnetic field. When audio is input into the amplifier, this magnetic fluctuates (making waves). This magnetic waves are picked up by t-coil equipped device, which amplify the signal and turn it into sound waves which make the ear hear” .(Designing Induction Loops Guide ,2012).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12: The Induction Loop System (Designing Induction Loops Guide, 2012).
5.4Captioning: Is a program of transforming the content of the video into texts in the screen of the television. The captions are typically white upper-case letters against a black background. Closed captioning is a technique of transforming the captioned text only when it is wanted. Open captions is the same, but the captions are a standing part of the picture, and cannot typically be turned off. Transcripts provide a textual version of the content that can be accessed by anyone.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 13: The Induction Loop System in 2012 Adapted from (Designing Induction Loops Guide ).
5.5FM System: one of the most useful solution in classroom is Frequency Modulated system which transmit the voice of the teacher directly to student, it defined as ” a portable device that uses radio transmission to send sounds from transmitter to a receiver .With most FM system the instructor wears a microphone (transmitter) and the students wears a receiver .When the instructor speaks , the speech signals is transmitted to the student’s receiver , eliminating background noises and allowing to receive the spoken message directly” .(“Frequency Modulated,”2017).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 14: Cases of Using FM System Retrieved from
https://www.hearinglink.org/living/loops-equipment/fm-systems/what-are-fm-ConclusionDeaf and hard of hearing students have specific characteristics that deffrenciate them from hearing students due to their hearing loss.In this chapter the researchers have tackled the issue of deafness and hard of hearing by defining the maintermsrelatated to it including deaf, hard of hearing, deafness, hearingimpairment. Inaddition, they shed the light on the means of communication as well as the technological devices that are used by deaf and hard of hearing people.
Chapter Two: English as a Foreign Language for Deaf and Hard of Hearing StudentsIntroductionThe educational reforms all over the world nowadays call forthe right of Deaf and hard of hearing students to learn English language- as being the world lingua franca-just like their hearing peers. Due to their inability to hear, Deaf and hard of hearing students face a real challenge in learning English as a foreign language. English is a challenge for teacher of deaf and hard of hearing students as well. How language development in D/HH students should look like?How English -as a foreign language- is taught for D/HH students? What are the difficulties that may arise from the teaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL) within the D/HH students’ situation? Are the main fundamental questions this chapter attempts to answer and clarify. English as a foreign language situation in Algeria and how it is taught -the case of D/HH students- is also examined under this chapter.
1. Language acquisition, development and deafnessChomsky’s innate hypothesis states that the child is born with an innate capacity to acquire language regardless of being blind or deaf. In the light of this hypothesis, D/HH and hearing children have an equal ability to learn language. But, due to the lack of auditory input resulting from hearing loss, D/HH children experience difficulties in developing the language correctly in its natural and spontaneous way what leads to “delayed language development” as said by Dotter (2013): “many of the research results on so-called “delayed language development” in deaf and hard-of-hearing children are the results of a general ignorance of language learning processes and of an absence of adequate early intervention” (p.35). In a natural way, language acquisition begins at birth, with the existence of both passive exposure to language input and daily interaction with others including parents and siblings (Marschark et al. 2002, P. 80).The need of exposure for the development of language is required for both hearing and deaf children (Nodoushan, 2008,p.16).
The ability to use language by D/HH children in fact differs from those who are primarily exposed to the sign language and those who are primarily exposed to the spoken language. Parents are reported to have a crucial role in the language development of their D/HH children; deaf children of deaf parents are more likely to acquire language compared with deaf children of hearing parents. According to Nodousshan (2008):
Pre-lingually-deaf children who are born into hearing families usually experience some difficulties in language acquisition…..As a result;theamount of exposure they receive is not as rich as that which deaf children of deaf parents or hearing children of hearing parents receive.(pp.16-17).
As Nodousshan continues, deaf children of deaf parents remain language disadvantaged until they enter school where they can receive exposure and this is considered as their first exposure to the natural language(Nodoushan, 2008, p. 17).
1.1 .Deafness and first (Sign) Language AcquisitionFirst language acquisition (FLA) refers to the process of acquiring the mother tongue which is the spoken language for hearing people. But, for D/HH people the sign language is their first language. It is proven that both sign and spoken language acquisition follow the same stages of development including babbling (7-10 months), first word stage (12-18 months), two words (18-22 months), word modification, and rule for sentences (22-36) leading to the conclusion that the brain is programmed biologically to acquire language whether it is spoken or signed (Adams & Rohring, 2004, p.58). Studies have shown that deaf babies babble just like their hearing babies until hearing babies start to produce words (Marschark, 1993, as cited in Marschark et al. 2002, pp.93-94). Marscharket al. (2002) state that:
Deaf and hearing infants do produce similar early vocalizations, like cryingand cooing. By the beginning of the babbling stage, however, they alreadydiffer. At seven months of age, when hearing babies are producing syllabic repetitions, deaf babies show a reduced frequency and complexity in vocal production. At 10 months, when the babbling of hearing babies becomes variegated (/magamaga/, pakapaka/), the gap has grown further (p.94)
Studies done on the acquisition of ASLby D/HH students have shown that the stages of sign language acquisition (SLA) are similar to those of language acquisition. It is reported that the acquisition of sign language is faster than that of spoken language such asfirst signs which occur between two and three months earlier than of first words (Tomaszewski, 2001, p. 68). The acquisition of vocabulary is also reported to be rapid than that of the spoken languageasTomaszewski(2001) said: “a child had a vocabulary of more than 85 signs at 13 months while hearing children exposed to spoken language at that age are just acquiring their first words” (p.68) . This, as he continued, leads to the conclusion that the manual signs occur before the spoken languagebecause “neuromuscular development of the system used in signing occurs earlier than development of the systems used for speaking” (Tomaszewski, 2001, p. 68)
1.2Deafness and Second Language AcquisitionFor hearing students second language acquisition (SLA) refers to the process of acquiring additional language after acquiring the mother tongue Ellis (1985) states that “second language acquisition stands in contrast to first language acquisition. It is the study of how learners learn an additional language after they have acquired their mother tongue.” (p.5) But, this is not the case for D/HH students. It is a fact that sign language is their first language what makes the spoken language of their countries their second language. Consequently, SLA is the process of acquiring the national spoken language of the country where D/HH students live. Taking the situation of Algeria, the Algerian Sign Language (ASL) is the mother tongue of deaf students and Arabic language that is spoken in the country is their second language.
1.3 Deafness and Foreign Language AcquisitionUnlike the second language which is an officially recognized language spoken by considerable people in a given country, foreign language is any language that is not officially recognized in a given country (Bussmann, 1996,p.419) . Third language acquisition refers to the process of acquiring foreign language in addition to one’s first and second language. Since the second language of deaf people is the sign language, any other foreign language is their third language. Dotter (2008) states that: “Taking a sign language as the first or preferred language of deaf people, a written/ spoken national one is already their second language; any other written/ spoken language becomes the third one.”(p. 100). Algeria is non- English spoken country what makes English a foreign language for deaf people.
2. Englishas a Foreign Language (EFL) for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students2.1 Teaching and LearningEnglish as a Foreign Language for D/HH StudentsLearning and teaching foreign languages by D/HH students is termed as surdo-glottodidactics. It derives from the latin words surdus, meaning deaf and glottis, meaning language and it was first used in Poland in 2001(Domagala-Zy?k, 2012, P.50). Glottodidactics means teaching and learning languages, it aims, as Domagala-Zy?k (2016) states, “at understanding and describing human communication in a foreign language in different contexts, times, and spaces. It is not a methodology of teaching but also the scientific reflection on it”(p.232). Glottodidactics provides teachers with the basic information and methodologies to enhance the teaching of foreign languages. Therefore, surdo-glottodidactics is a new field within deaf studies, meaning the science of teaching and learning foreign languagesby D/HH students. It is a collaborative work between significant fields including linguistics, didactics, medicine, neuropsychology and technological sciences, aiming at understanding and improving the process of teaching and learning foreign language within D/HH students (Domagala-Zy?k, 2016, P. 232).
Teaching and learning foreign languages to D/HH students is still an under researched topic due to its complex nature.Domagala – Zy?k (2012) said: “Teaching foreign languages to the D/deaf still can be treated as a relatively new educational phenomenon that still needs to be thoroughly searched”(p.51). Learning English as a foreign language becomes compulsory for D/HH students nowadays and it is integrated in all education programs. D/HH students are required to receive English classes under the same curriculum designed for hearing students and they are taught the four English skills including reading,writing, speaking and listening. Domagala-Zy?k (2012) in this context says “The main methodological idea is to use in teaching languages to the deaf the same approach, the same methods and differentiate only the techniques: way of communication with the students and different prompts used in the classroom (P.48). According to her, surdo- glottodidactics methodology should be the same as a classical foreign language learning methodology. The difference is only on creating specific techniques and adopting certain communication means to suit the needs of D/HH students. Otherwise, the aim of teaching English as a foreign language to D/HH students will not be achieved (Domagala-Zy?k, 2012, p. 50).Concerning the aim of teaching foreign languages such as English to D/HH students,Domagala-Zy?k (2012) states that: “foreign language learning should be treated as a tool to open the deaf people’s minds, to give them a tool to communicate with others, to provide access to different sources of information (e.g. Internet)” (p. 50).
2.2 Strategies of Teaching and LearningEnglish as Foreign Language for Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing StudentsLearning strategies is defined by Oxfordas “specific actions, behaviors, steps or techniques that students use to improve their skills in the language they are learning” (Oxford 1992/1993, p.18. qtd. in Domagala–Zy?k, 2016, p. 144). Learning strategies and teaching strategies according to(Domagala–Zy?k, 2016) are part and parcel and they are interchangeably related to each other thus they must be termed and appear together as teaching and learning strategies.To provide successful English teaching and learning environment to D/HH students, strategies should be always dynamic; changed and adopted according to the D/HH students’ needs.Therefore, it is the role of teachers to make the learning process of English as easy as possible by adopting their teaching strategies to meet the needs of their D/HH students. Despite the shortage of studies done on teaching English as a foreign language to D/HH students, the two volumes of studies edited by E. Domagala – Zy?k (2013)and E. Domagala – Zy?k and H. Kontra (2016) are considered groundbreaking. They attempt to fill this gap by giving and suggesting effective teaching strategies of English based on their teaching English as a foreign language to D/HH students experiences.
2.2.1 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language via Signing(Sign Language)Sign language has positive effects on the development of spoken language, it enables D/HH students to access to English language and it gives them more confidence about their abilities.Therefore,they become motivated to learn it. Studies have yielded an important finding about the advantages of sign language over the spoken language. They argue that the advantage of sign language is seen as a tool of prelinguistic communication in deaf children because it provides a smooth transition to language (Marschark et al., 2002, p. 99).According toDomagala-Zy?k (2016) Deaf and hard of hearing students’ national or international foreign sign language can be used as the main means of English as a foreign languageteachingand they are the primary modes for foreign language teachers of D/HH students(P. 235). Based on her view, teaching English as a foreign language to D/HH students can be taught via foreign sign language or national sign language.Foreign language (FL)teaching is taught to D/HH students by firstly familiarizing them with foreign sign languages (Domagala– Zy?k, p.3). Foreign sign languages, as Pritchard (2013) claims: “provide a bridge to English spoken language” (p.119). National sign language is the language of instruction for the majority of teachers of D/HH students and it can be used in teaching foreign language as well(Domagala-Zy?k, 2016, p. 235). According to her, there are number of projects that support the use of national sign language and among them isthe multimedia project “Sign me English” to facilitate and enhance the learning of vocabulary and grammar. The second international project is termed “Sign On, English for Deaf Sign Language Users”. It facilitates the use of written English by D/HH students, hence enabling them to communicate internationally through the internet (Domagala-Zy?k, 2016, pp.235-236). It is noteworthy that English is taught by hearing teachers what necessitates a good knowledge of both sign and spoken language by them “if the teachers are fluent signers, they are able to use both the local SL and the spoken language in their work as necessitated by a given situation” (E. H. Kontra, Csizér, & Piniel, 2014, p.144).
2.2.2 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language via Cueing (Cued Speech)Cued speech is a visual communication system that was developed in 1966 by Dr. R. Orin Cornett as aspeechreading support system; it is a communication system that employs eight hand configurations and four hand positionsnear the mouth to supplement visible speech(Turkington&E. Sussman, 2003, P.59).According toPodlewska(2013), cued speech makes spoken language visually clear on the levels of phonemes, morphemes, syntax, semantics, duration, stress, and intonation.This system as she claims: “can also help to facilitate the development of the pragmatic uses of language as well as the use of different registers for a variety of communicative circumstances and interlocutors” (p. 184).Some sounds such as /m/, /p/ and /b/ and words like papa and mama look the same on the lips when the teacher utters them. The main aim of cued speech is to help D/HH students differentiate between them through handshapes (Domagala-Zy?k, 2016, P. 141).Cued speech are reported to have a crucial and considerable role in understanding English thus it should be integrated in teaching all segments of English to D/HH students. It is beneficial to the extent that D/HH of hearing students now have an access to the spoken English and can achieve a highly intelligible speech and good speech perception (Podlewska,2013,p. 191)
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 15: The current British English cue chart, as disseminated by the Cued Speech Association UK (Podlewska, 2013, p. 194)
2.2.3 Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language via SpeakingLearning English as a foreign language via speaking is the best and preferable way for hard of hearing and for deaf students who use speech reading as means of communication in their national language. Teaching English via speaking emphasizes the use of oral approachwhich in turn stresses the use of both speechreadingandmodern information and communicationstechnology (ICT) such as induction loops and FM systems. In teaching speechreading and speaking in a foreign language, teachers must have good communication strategies.They should keep their mouths and faces visible to enable D/HH students grasp the spoken language and read lips ((Domagala-Zy?k, 2016, P. 237) and as she continues, Cued speech, spoken language translations and signed English are useful means of supporting this strategy.
2.2.4Teaching and learning English speaking SkillThe access to the spoken form of English differs among D/HH students according to their degree of hearing and their use of hearing aids.English is a phonic language based on spoken input. According to Pritchard (2013), teaching spoken English to D/HH students can be supportedby using visual, kinesthetic, and tactile techniques including signed English, gesture,fingerspelling alphabet and visual phonic. Lipreading is another effective strategy because it enables the students to see the articulation of English phonemes through the shapes of mouth (Pritchard, 2013, p. 120).
2.2.5 Teaching and Learning English Reading SkillReading is a complex and challenging activity for D/HH students. Thus it necessitates a careful instructions and strategies to teach it. Using simplified texts with attentively controlled vocabulary and grammar in addition to the use of authentic text combined with pictures arereported to be effective strategies of teaching reading since they facilitate and improve the reading comprehension (Marschark et al., 2002, p. 166). Dolman (1992) (as cited in Marschark et al.) argues that the use of real authentic texts gives D/HH students a full picture of what is meant by reading. D/HH students need to know not just how words look like in the text but, they need more than that.They need as Pritchard (2013) said: “to learn about English phonetics which is a basic, necessary strategy” (p. 121) and according to her the use of visual and tactile senses are the keys to achieve this process. Pritchard (2013) also argues that presenting text in different forms not just in book forms and using information and communication technologies (ICT) in reading are effective strategies used in teaching D/HH students how to read.
2.2.6 Teaching and Learning English Writing SkillWriting is considered as the main vehicle of acquiring the language for deaf and hard of hearing students(Domagala–Zy?k, 2016, P.167).Motivation, reinforcement, high expectations and encouragement of the teachers are key factors that give D/HH students the confidence to start writing. Teachers must give D/HH studentsthe opportunity to write and to achieve this goal as Pritchard (2013) said: “progressing from copying, writing a text together as a group, to completing sentences, to writing a sentence, to using a writing frame, and finally planning and writing a text are all steps along the way” (p. 122).
2.2.7 Teaching and LearningEnglish VocabularyVocabulary is central in learning English because without vocabulary students cannot have a full access to the language being learned. Vocabulary is problematic in teaching English as a foreign language to D/HH. The best way to present a new word to D/HH students as (Podlewska,2013, p. 190)suggested is preparing sound grid which is a visual way that gives a written form of the word by determining the number of its syllables, consonants, vowels and how it is pronounced. Four teaching strategies were suggested and valued by Domagala–Zy?k(2016) as being effective strategies in teaching vocabulary including vocabulary personalization, vocabulary emotionalization, word semantic analysis and word morphological analysis. Using vocabulary personalization strategy, the teacher should choose thevocabulary that is suitable for D/HH and linked with their interests and everyday experiences in order to motivate them. The more the vocabulary is related to theD/HH students’ personal interests, the more they can grasp and learn it. The second strategy is vocabulary emotionalization which stresses the use of vocabulary that has emotional components Domagala–Zy?k (2016) said: “when students feel emotionally safe they are motivated to use language, and their progress is more dynamic” (p.147). The third strategy is word semantic analysis where the role of teacher is to make the meaning of new words as clear as possible to D/HH students. Information and communication technology is a key in this strategy since it provides a visual context for new words for D/HH students.Thelast strategy is word morphological analysis. The majority of English words are formed with the use of suffixes and prefixes and to gain a better understanding of the new words, teachers must show the morphological structure of them through the use of cued speech (Domagala–Zy?k, 2016, P.148)
3.Teaching and Learning difficulties of English as a Foreign Language for D/HH studentsStudents with special education needs face a number of learning difficulties due to a range of factors including visual impairment, hearing impairment,psychological and behavioral issues.Learning difficulties,learning disorder and learning disabilitiesare three synonymous terms but the preferred term to describe all students struggling to learn is ‘Learning difficulties’. Students with learning difficulties are those who show a reduced academic progress and achievement in one or more of the six areas including oral comprehension, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, mathematics calculation or mathematics reasoning (Martin, 1995, p. 2).Deaf and hard of hearing students have auditory perception disability that causes difficulties in the process of their learning. They have a problem of understanding due to their lack of auditory input which is considered as the first and the main step in the learning process. Deaf and hard of hearing students have learning difficulties because one step in the learning process which is auditory input is missed.
Due to the lack of auditory input, D/HH students struggle to master their first language whether spoken or written and their academic achievement is reported to be lessthan hearing students. While D/HH students still struggling to learn their first language (sign language) and their second language (national language), a new challenge has arisen concerning the learning of foreign language especially with the educational reforms all over the world which calls for the incorporation of English language- as being the world lingua franca-in the curriculum and the right of D/HH students to learn this language just like their hearing peers. English constitutes a real and continued struggle for English teachers and D/HH students because they face tremendous problems. The difficulties in speech perception and production, problems with natural access to semantic, phonetics, morphology, and syntax of the foreign language and the lack of instruction materials and equipments are reported to be the main problems based on the literature of teaching and learning English as foreign language by D/HH (Bedoin,2011), (Domagala- Zy?k, 2013/2014). In fact those problems are present in learning the national language which is the second language for D/HH and when it comes to the foreign language the gap has grown further. Usually, D/HH students’ teachers are hearing people. As D/HH students, English teachers, especially those who did not receive training and have no eligibility and competence to teach D/HH students, have also the potential to face numerous difficulties and challenges. The challenge lies on how English teachers adapt and adjust their teaching strategies to meet the needs of their D/HH students while teaching English to this specific category of people(Bedoin, 2011, p.159).
3.1The Problem of Special Education Vs Mainstream EducationThe environment including the place where D/HH students are taught plays a vital role in learning English as foreign language as well as in teaching. According to NCSE (2014) there are three main types of education provision available for educating pupils with special education needs including D/HH students. A mainstream class in a mainstream primary or post-primary school, it is an ordinary class where the teacher is responsible for the progress of all pupils including thenormal pupils and pupils with special education needs. The second type is a special class within a mainstream primary or post-primary school. It is a special class with a small number of pupils which are taught by specialized teachers according to the pupils’ type of disability. The third type is the special school; classes in the special school have small number of pupils (approximately eight pupils in each class) which are taught by specialized teachers. According to Bedoin (2011), English teachers working in the special school are more competent and qualified than those working in the mainstream and they have a certification as specialized teachers of the deaf but the problem here is “not every school requires it” (Bedoin, 2011, p.170).
3.2 Difficulty of Learning English vocabulary
The main problem D/HH students are straggling with is the comprehension of foreign words and expression and this asDomagala-Zy?k (2016) said is linked with their difficulties in mastering their national language. Vocabulary is defined as “the storehouse of word meanings that we draw on to comprehend what is said to us, express our thoughts, or interpret what we read” (Moats, 2005, p.7, as cited in Luckner; Cooke, 2010). Unlike hearing students, D/HH students are frequently reported to have reduced and delayed vocabulary knowledge. They have small lexicon and they tend to acquire newwords at slower rates(Luckner ;Cooke, 2010). D/HH students learn the concrete words like (dog, bleu,six)more easily than the abstract words like (before, after, love hate, jealous). They also have problems with function words like (the, an, and) and it is difficult for them to understand polysemic words. D/HH students cannot understand and write complex sentences with relative clauses or passive voice(Mpofu; Chimhenga, 2013,p. 4). This according to Domagala-Zy?k (2016) slows down the process of teaching and makes it difficult for teachers to achieve success in teaching English.
3.3 Difficulties in Speaking and Listening SkillsSpeaking and listening are two important and basic skills used in teaching and learning any language. A key feature in speech perception and production is the ability to hear and understand the acoustic information in speech. But, the situation is different when it comes to D/HH students. Due to the hearing loss, the information conveyed through speech is diminished. Consequently, D/HH students have no full access to the message conveyed. This will affect their own speech perception and understanding as well as speech production especially in noisy situations, such as group discussion (KSDE, 2009, p.4). Producing speech is also another difficulty for D/HH studentsas a study done by E. H. Kontra etal revealed. Based on their interviews with D/HH students’ findings, pronouncing the written language (English) is the most difficult activity for them. According to Pritchard (2013), the access to spoken English by D/HH students differs significantly and there is no guarantees that D/HH students have full access to the spoken language even those with cochlear implants (p.120). This obviously, as Pritchard (2013) continues: “affects the ability to acquire English based solely on spoken input” (p.120). Deaf and hard of hearing students have difficulties with these two skills because the inability to listen leads to inability to speak. Understanding speech in English via speech reading or acoustic channel is a challenge for D/HH students because it is a phonic language where the same letters have different sounds (E. H. Kontra et al., 2014, p. 150). English is consisted of 44 sounds, but there are just 26 letters to represent them what makes D/HH students unable to distinguish between some speech sounds such as “/f/, /v/” and “/m/, /p /, /b/”.It is even hard for teachers to represent them. D/HH students never hair their voice when they speak, they may speak too loudly or not loud enough; they may sound like mumbling because of poor stress , poor inflection ,or poor rate of speaking . Many subjects and activities in listening and speaking skills lost their interest because the program of teaching English in both middle and secondary school is the same for both normal students and students with hearing impairments, That is why teachers cannot teach a lesson related to speaking and listening skills to deaf and hard of hearing students; for example students cannot distinguish between triphtongues and diphtongues (Mpofu & Chimhenga, 2013, p. 4).
3.4 Difficulties in Reading and WritingReading and writing are also reported to be among the main difficulties deaf and hard of hearing students face because the sign language does not have an accepted written form. Reading is regarded as one of the most difficult skills for deaf and hard of hearing students Sedlá?ková and Fonioková (2013) state: “reading is seen as one of the challenging areas and a frequent cause of academic and career failure of the deaf”(p. 136). According to Marschark et al. (2002), there are three levels of reading in which D/HH students have difficulties with including word decoding, vocabulary and grammar. Eisenbraum et al. (2011)(as cited in Annette, 2011) noted that learners who were hard of hearing or were deaf face many difficulties in reading and writing because the teachers did not know sign language. The lack of progress in promoting deaf students ‘reading achievement was largely the cause of the wrong directions taken. Marschark also believed that the challenges in educating students who are deaf usually ascribed to reading and writing were not literacy-related at all. He observed that the students who were deaf made the same kind of mistakes in reading and writing as those made by people learning English as a second language. This observation was however on students of a higher grade. It remains to be investigated whether the same pattern would be applicable to the learners who are deaf and are at the primary school level (Marschark, 2006, ascited in Anette, 2011).
3.5The Curriculum ContentThe curriculum content constitutes another problem for D/HH students during the learning of English as a foreign language. D/HH students are required to receive English classes under the same curriculum designed for normal hearing students and with the same amount of hours. The English curriculum for D/HH contains the same goals and standards as the curriculum designed for hearing students and includes the four skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening) in addition to the cultural knowledge and understanding needed for learning English (Pritchard, 2013, p.115). By following the same curriculum, both teachers and D/HH students will confront many difficulties especially with those of listening and speaking skills. Teachers, especially the untrained ones, find it difficult to teach and convey meaning of some lessons for their D/HH students such as phonetics. D/HH students vary in their functional hearing and speaking skills. In this situation, as Pritchard (2013) said: “expecting one teaching approach to suit all is not reasonable or successful. Therefore the curriculum must provide for this large variation in the population”(p. 115). It is noteworthy that curriculum must be adopted so that D/HH students can achieve and reach learning English objectives.
3.6The Lack of Trained and Specialized TeachersThe majority of English teachers who teach deaf and hard of hearing students come from regular schools and they are graduated from universities to teach in a mainstream school not in special school. Due to the lack of training program, teachers find it difficult to adjust the curriculum and adopt their teaching strategies to meet the needs of D/HH pupils (El-Zraigat;Smadi, 2012, p. 154). Most English teachers are not competent users of sign language what leads to the problems of developing communication and interaction with D/HH students in addition to the classroom management difficulties.
3.7The Lack of School Facilities, Instructional Materials and EquipmentsInstructional materials, school facilities andtechnologiesplay a crucial role in D/HH student education especially in learning English as a foreign language. The unavailability of teaching material is reported to be another challenge in educating D/HH students.
4. English as a Foreign Language Situation in Algeria (The Case of D/HH Students) Without any doubt, English is the medium of international communication nowadays. It is the world lingua franca at the basis of technology, education, and economy. Therefore, it becomes a necessity in the era of globalization and as a way to cope with the worldwide changes, Algeria find it necessary to incorporate English as a foreign language – beside French language – in the educational system. Thus, English language was instituted in the Algerian schools in 1960s during the Grammar Translation Method which is shifted later on to The Competency- Based Approach as a result of the educational reform in the primary, middle and secondary school in 2002 (Cheli Saliha, 2010). Students are supposed to learn English as a foreign language for four years in the middle school followed by three years in the secondary school and then it is up to the students to continue learning English as a main subject at the university.
Algerian government recognizes that Deaf children and Deaf students have the right to receive an education; it provides a policy to support deaf education which is in fact a joint policy between the Ministry of Solidarity and Ministry of Education. The total number of schools designed specifically for Deaf children and Deaf students in Algeria is 32 special schools and the educational approach for communicating with Deaf children and students in the special schools is the Oral Method. The sign language used in the country is the Algerian Sign Language (ASL) which is formally recognized in the Legislation and as the country’s sign language in 2007 by the country’s government.
(aasl.aacore:jp/wiki/Algeria-Sign-Language #population –of –signers)
As stated above in the introduction deaf and hard of hearing students have the right to receive equal opportunities in learning foreign languages just like their hearing peers. In Algeria, deaf and hard of hearing students may be taught in a mainstream or special school according to the degree of their hearing disability. Speaking about the context of special schools, D/HH students are required to receive education starting from kindergarten till middle school. Students there are required to pass two years in the kindergarten at the age of four where they are supposed to learn the place and manner of articulation of the letters including the lingual, the oral and the guttural one. In addition they learn the sign language of the country they live in under the guidance of a specialized teacher in the field. Then, students move to the primary level where they are supposed to study five years and again they have the same curriculum of the primary regular school. After passing the final exam, pupils are able to continue the four years of middle school within the same special school. It is in the middle school where deaf and hard of hearing students receive English classes. After getting the B.E.M Certificate, pupils continue their studies in ordinary high school. Programming and timing in special school for the deaf in Algeria is the same as the regular ones; the difference is that in special school, classes include small number of pupils (approximately seven pupils in each class).
In Algeria deaf students are required to receive English classes during the middle school under the same curriculum designed for normal hearing students and with the same amount of hours (approximately four hours per week). The aim is to teach them written and spoken English not the British Sign Language or American Sign Language. Since the education program of deaf and hard of hearing students is similar to that of regular schools, students by the end of middle school are expected to learn basic English structure and vocabulary “They are supposed to have acquired basic English (structure and vocabulary) necessary to express the four main functions of the language which are: description, instruction, narration, and socializing in the four linguistic skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing)” (Slimani, 2016, p. 37).
Level Kindergarten Primary Middle
Years Allocated Two years Five years Four years
Languages taught Arabic Arabic (five years)
French (three year) Arabic
Communication Sign language
Educational approach Oral method
Table3: Deaf and Hard of HearingProgram in Special School in Algeria
ConclusionAs a conclusion to this chapter , deaf and hard of hearing students have the right to study a foreing language like hearing students. This does not ignor the fact that they (deaf and hard of hearing students) as well as teachers have tremendouse difficulties in learnnig and teaching English as a foreign language. In this chapter the researchers focused on languge acquisition and development of D/HH students, the main teaching and learning strategies of English and the difficulties that may encounter both teachers and D/HH students.Furthermore, as an initial step toward the the third practical part, English as a foreign language situation in Algeria and how it is taught -the case of D/HH students is mentioned at the end of this second theoretical chapter.
Chapter Three: Research Design, Procedures, and Data Analysis
This chapter is devoted to the practical part of the research and sought to gather data about teaching and learning difficulties of English as a foreign language for Deaf and Hard of hearing pupils. It is divided into two parts. The first one presents the locale of the study, research method and design, participants, research instruments, research procedures, research ethical considerations and finally the data analysis procedures. The second part includes the analysis and interpretation of data obtained from class observation, questionnaire, and interview, overall results, recommendation and research limitations.
Locale of the Study
This study was conducted at a special school of children with hearing disabilities situated in the municipality of Bakerya, Kwaif district, wilaya of Tabessa, at 11 km from the east side of the wilaya. The school is located on a 1200 square meters wide land. It is bordered to the east by the youth welfare centre of Bakerya, to the southern side by a hospital, to the west side by Hwijbat road and to the northern side by a social housing. The school was established in accordance with the Executive Decree No. 89/57, on 02 may 1989, and opened its doors for the pupils on 21 September 1991, it accommodates 123 boarding pupils. This special school is a primary and middle school at the same time.
The school for children with hearing disabilities in Bakerya, has special needs education specialists, most of them were formed at the National Centre for the formation of specialists for people with special needs. It includes the Director who supervises all the pedagogic, psychological and educational works along the administrative ones; in other words, they supervise all the matters related to the management of the centre, the Head of the Pedagogic Department, the Psychologist who is in charge of making the preliminary examination before being admitted to the centre, making Individual follows-up (mental and behavioural disorders), external follow-up for children who suffer from school failure and family guidance and orientation (for parents, behaviour modification), Social workers, specialized educators, educators and assistant educators.
This school has an administrative building, a pedagogic building which is allocated for the pedagogic team and students’ classes, a workshop ward which includes the games room, the TV room, the sports hall and the laboratory, a dormitory building; for male students, it is two storeys building; the ground floor is allotted for students whom their age is less than 10 years while the first floor is reserved for those who have more than 10 years. For female students, it is within the third and fourth floors in the administrative building and finally a kitchen and restaurant ward. Currently, the centre includes 100 pupils. It is made up of thirteen (13) classes; two (2) for the kindergarten level, seven (7) for the primary level, and four (4) for the middle level. The classes in this special school are small with approximately 8 pupils in each class.
Concerning the equipments, the preparatory sections were given a great attention and furnished with audio-specific equipments; the same thing was done as well for the 1st and 2nd elementary grade classes. The wards reserved for speech therapies along the sensory-material ward, the laboratories and finally the dormitories were also respectively furnished with the necessary equipments for their activities. Each pupil was as well provided with a table and chair.
Once the subject of the study was approved by the department of letters and English language in Tebessa as well as the supervisor, we contacted the director of the school who authorized us to take a look over at the different grades of the school: deaf and mute, pre-school, primary and junior-high, and we were well welcomed and helped by the staff. We were accompanied by one of the team workers in this special school who introduced us to the staff and showed us the different equipments and classes etc.
Part One: Research Methodology
1. Research Method and Design
Among the research methods that can be used in educational research is case study. Case study is defined by ….. The research aims at identifying the difficulties of teaching and learning English as a foreign language for D/HH pupils in a special school.
The population of this study is D/HH middle school pupils in special school for D/HH pupils in Bakerya Tebessa, it consists of 36 pupils. Since our population is small, we decided to take the whole population as a sample. In addition, this centre has just one teacher of English so we made an interview with her.
3. Research Instruments
This study contains three instruments in order to answer the three research questions. A classroom observation was done at the beginning of this research in special classes, a questionnaire which was administered to deaf and hard of hearing pupils in the center of Bakerya, and an interview with an English teacher.
40182801819910All pupils of middle special school (center of Bakerya)
00All pupils of middle special school (center of Bakerya)
Table: Research Instruments Employed
3.1 Classroom Observation
The first step of gathering data in this study is a classroom observation by observing behavior, interaction, and teacher’s strategies. Observation enables the researcher to gather information as they happen in their natural setting (Cohen et al. 2005, P. 396). Robson (2000) defined observation as follows:
“What people do may differ from what they say they do, and observation provides a reality check; observation also enables a researcher to look afresh at every-day behavior that otherwise might be taken for granted, expected or go unnoticed (qtd in Cohen 2005, p. 396)
According to Kothari .C.R, (2004), observation is a method of watching everything around us and it should be scientific. He said “Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collection for the researcher, when it serves a formulated research purpose, is systematically planned and recorded and is subjected to checks and controls on validity and reliability”(p. ). To gain a deep understanding about how DHH students learn English in this center. A checklist observation was prepared for being restricted to observe the strategies used in class and everything related to the study of DHH students. The observation was conducted in special class of first, second, third, and fourth year in middle school, each class was observed two times. On January 21, 2018, we started our class observation with the fourth level with an English teacher, approximately three sessions in each class.
Sessions N° Date Level Class Time Number of Learners in Class
Special Education Class S1
04/04/2018 1st Year
2nd Year 11:00-12:00
15:00-16:00 7 pupils
Table: Basic Information about the Observed Sessions
The second instrument used for collecting data in this research is questionnaire. Nunan (1992) defines questionnaire as “a relatively popular means of collecting data. It enables the research to collect data in field settings, and the data themselves are more amenable to qualification than discursive data such as free form -field notes , participant observes’ , journals, the transcripts of oral language ” (p. 142). Questionnaire has also three types; structured, unstructured, and quasi – structured questionnaire. Acharya .B, 2010 defines a structured questionnaire as “Structured questionnaires include pre-coded questions with well-defined skipping patterns to follow the Sequence of questions. Most of the quantitative data collection operations use structured questionnaires. Advantages of such structured questionnaires are less discrepancies, easy to administer, consistency in answers and easy for the data management”. According to him quasi- structured questionnaire is more related to social sciences studies and unstructured questionnaire includes open ended questions and opinions and focus group discussion use this type of questionnaire.
This research focus on structured questionnaire.
3.2.1 Piloting the Questionnaire
Deaf and hard of hearing students have a unique way of communication. This leads to the need of piloting the questionnaire to check that all the questions are clear and eliminate any kind of ambiguity. The questionnaire was performed with four pupils from the four levels including first, second, third, and fourth year of the middle special school with the assistance of the teacher as a sign language interpreter. The questions were in English and in order to facilitate the work for her, the questionnaire was translated in Arabic. On the other hand, pupils are supposed to answer in the English version. As a result of the pilot, the questions were answered by the students without any difficulties. However, the open- ended questions were not answered and they find difficulty with them; therefore, the researchers eliminate them and they base their questionnaire on closed questions with multiple choices.
3.2.2 The Description of Pupils’ Questionnaire
The pupils’ questionnaire contains twenty-three (23) questions divided into four sections. The questions are based on multiple choices and pupils are supposed to choose the appropriate answer from the options.
Section One: General Information (Q1- Q7): it seeks information about the pupils’ gender, age, level, degree of hearing loss, cause of hearing loss and the use of hearing aids.
Section Two: Means of Communication and Learning Modalities (Q8- Q15):
Section Three: D/HH Learners Motivation and attitudes Towards Learning English as a Foreign Language (Q16 – Q19):
Section Four: Difficulties of Learning English as a Foreign Language by D/HH learners (Q20- Q23):
The third instrument of collecting data in this study is the interview. It is an important tool to gather data from individuals themselves through conversation (Cohen, 2005, p. 349) The interview has different types as Nunan (1992) states: “Interviews can be characterized in terms of their degree of formality, and most can be placed on a continuum ranging from unstructured through semi-structured to structured” (p.149). In unstructured interview the questions are not prepared by the researcher in advance, it is conducted in informal manner and it has “… greater flexibility and freedom” (Cohen, 2005, p. 355). Consequently, the researcher is more likely to face research bias. In contrast to unstructured interview, the structured interview involves questions preparation prior to the interview (Cohen, 2005, p. 355). Whereas, in semi-structured interview, the interviewer has a clear idea about the interview, the purpose, and the result he/she wants to achieve.” It gives the interviewee a degree of power and control over the course of interview, it also gives the interviewer great deal of flexibility” while in structured interview the agenda is predetermined by the researcher who organized a set of questions in predetermined order Dowsett (1986,P.53ctd in Nunan ,1992 p.149/150) . In addition, Dörnyei, 2005 argues that:
In applied linguistic research most interviews conducted belong to the “semi-structured interview” type, which offers a compromise between the two extremes: Although there is a set of pre-prepared guiding questions and prompts, the format is open-ended and the interviewee is encouraged to elaborate on the issues raised in an exploratory manner (p. ).
For this reason, a semi-structured interview was designed for English teacher and while conducting the interview, the researchers save data by recording and note taking.
3.3.1The Description of Teacher’s Interview
The teacher’s interview is conducted with an English teacher in special school for D/HH pupils. Since this special school has just one English teacher, the sample is limited and just one teacher is involved. It consists of twenty-four (24) questions divided into five themes as follows:
Theme One: General Information (Q1- Q4): It is about the teacher’s age, degree, and teaching experience and to check whether teaching D/HH pupils is the teacher’s first choice or no. The aim is to identify the teacher’s profile.
Theme Two: Communication Means and Technologies (Q5- Q9): This theme seeks information about the communication means used by the teacher when communicating with D/HH pupils, teacher’s ability in using sign language, and the availability of both sign language interpreters in classes and technological resources. This theme also aims to know what kind of materials used by teachers in teaching English to D/HH learners.
Theme Three: Strategies of Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language for D/HH Students (Q 10 – Q16): This theme aims to know what methods the teacher use as well as the strategies she uses in teaching English vocabulary, grammar, and the four skills. In addition, it seeks to know teacher’s opinion about English curriculum and how she adjusted it to fit the needs of D/HH learners.
Theme Four: Teaching and Learning Difficulties of English as a Foreign Language for D/HH Students (Q17 – Q 23): This theme seeks information about the teacher’s training, the difficulties that both D/HH pupils and teacher face when learning and teaching English, the aims of teaching English to D/HH pupils, the difficulties of teaching English vocabulary, grammar, and the four skills, D/HH learners’ level in English and to what extent they like English. The purpose is to identify the difficulties of teaching English to D/HH learners.
Theme Five: Teacher’s suggestion (Q24): This theme includes one question where teacher is requested to provide any suggestions to overcome these difficulties and improve D/HH learners’ level in English
4. Research Procedures
On January 21, 2018, we started our class observation with the fourth level with an English teacher, approximately three sessions in each class. On April 10, 2018, we made another visit to the special school in order to hand out the questionnaires we had prepared for the pupils. The questionnaire was administered to 32 pupils since four pupils were absent. The pupils at the four levels answered the question with the assistance of four teachers as sign language interpreters. Since teachers cannot understand English, the questionnaire was translated in Arabic. On 11 April 2018 of the same week, we conducted an interview with an English teacher. The conversation lasted 13 min and it was audio recorded and then transcribed in order to analyse it.
5. Research Ethical Considerations
In social sciences researches, specifically in education, ethical considerations are very important to make sure that the research norms are committed. According to Cohen (2005), ethical issues in research may arise from the nature of the research itself, the setting where the research is conducted, methods and types of data collection, participants’ nature, and research privacy and anonymity (p. 51). To address ethical issues in this research, a permission to conduct the study was taken from both the directors of special schools and Departement of Social Activity (DAS) in Tebessa because D/HH pupils Education is a joint policy between the Ministry of Solidarity and Ministry of Education. The permission was taken through a research clearance letter (see Appendix …) obtained from the department of letters and English language in Tebessa. In addition, participants’ confidentiality, privacy and anonymity were also addressed. All the participants including D/HH pupils and the English teacher were informed of the research objectives from the beginning and that their participation will be kept anonymous and will be used just for research purposes.
6. Data Analysis Procedures: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Any practical study should contain the analysis of the data collection which is regarded as procedures that help the researchers to obtain the findings and draw conclusion and recommendation. In this study, data will be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Part Two: Data Analysis and Interpretation
1. Classroom Observation Results
To have a clear insight about the teaching and learning process of English in special a school for D/HH middle pupils , classroom observation was carried out …..;
In the observed special school classroom there were four classes for the middle school. Those classes are small with few numbers of pupils; they are confortable in study which is one of the factors of successful learning. Each one of the pupils sits alone in position that enables them to see the whiteboard. Moreover, the class also includes bookcase which contains all the pupil’s books and copybooks. Same of the walls are decorated with charts, pupil’s handcrafts etc. The class also contains hangings in all the windows.
The teacher always speaks clearly in order to attract the pupil’s attention , they can get the meaning of an idea from her facial expression , gestures, body language, and sign language which includes all of them .The teacher also repeat the explanation many times if the pupil’s did not understand by drawing , writing notes, and using pictures , she encourages her pupils by a sign of “good ” or smile.
The teacher starts her lesson by a short warming up of the previous lesson in order to remember them because they have a short term memory. The English lessons of D/HH pupils are like the lessons of hearing pupils; it contains the four skills which are almost ignored in this special school classes because pupils cannot study some lessons like, listen and consider, listen and speak, reading comprehension etc. because of the challenges that face them in learning English as a foreign language .
The pupils in class standing closer to each other and face the board in order to understand the course. There was a lack of attention in class by the majority of pupils while the teacher explains the lesson; there was also little participation in class because of the difficulties of the English language.
The teaching method used in those classes is traditional method because it is based on teacher’s centeredness; teacher is the one who explain, and do everything in class not like the modern method (competency based approach) where the pupils do everything and the teacher just guide them.
Written and visual materials are observed in this classroom as an important part in classroom activities. The materials are not available in this classes just some visual materials such as textbooks, charts, pictures, and very few times data projector.
2. Student?s Questionnaire Results
Figure 1.1 : Pupils’ Gender
The figure above represents the pupils’ gender in the Bakarya special school of pupils with hearing impaired. The result indicates that (34%) of pupils are female and ( 66% )are male. It is apparent from this figure that the number of male is higher than the number of female that is to say that, classes are not balanced.
Age : …………Years old
Figure 2.1: Pupils’ Age
This figure examines the pupil’s age starting from 13 years old (1) to 23 years old (11) . Pupils are in the age of thirteen (13) to twenty three (23) hence, classes are quite heterogeneous. Four pupils are 13 years old, five are 14years old, ten are 15 years old, five are 16years old, three are 18 years old, two are 19 years old, also two are 21 years old, and one is 23 years old. From this data the researchers can see that, normally the majority of pupils are at university becouse 23 years old is a student at university not at middle school , this all is related to parent’s lack of awareness .D/HH pupils did not enter school early what affects their ability to learn foreign languages …..
Figure 3.1: Pupils’ Level
This figure represents the pupil’s level in this special school. There are four classes; each class for one level. The result indicates that (22%) of pupils are first year,( 22% )are second year,( 31% )are third year, and (25%) are fourth year. As this figure (3.1) shows, there is a significant difference between the numbers of pupils in classes. The number of all pupils is 36 but these figures represent just 32 becouse four are absent.
Degree of hearing loss
Figure 4.1: Pupils’ Degree of Hearing Loss
This figure represents the pupil’s degree of hearing loss. The result indicates that approximately all pupils are profound hearing loss (72%), just (28%) are moderate hearing loss. What is significant in this data is that the learner’s degree of hearing loss is heterogeneous where there are pupils with profound degree of hearing loss and others with moderate degree of hearing loss. This necessitates the use of both sign language and spoken language as means of instruction in teaching English. Therefore, enabling hard of hearing pupils acquire the foreign language through speech and deaf pupils through sign language. The type of the lesson should be prepared according to the pupil’s degree of hearing loss. The approach of teaching the four skills- speaking, listing ( lip reading) , reading , and writing depends also on learner’s degree of hearing loss . Teaching the four skills to profound hearing loss is difficult and not motivated. On the other hand, for pupils with moderate hearing loss is mostly successful because they have the ability to acquire a foreign language . The teacher also should be able to work with the two groups separately .The causes of hearing loss
Figure 5.1 : The Cause of Hearing Loss
The figure above represents the cause of hearing loss, either inherited or by accident. The result indicates that (66%) inherit this disability and (34%) from them is acquired during their lives. That is to say that the majority of pupils inherit this disability from their family for example, in this center there are four brothers; three are deaf and one is hard of hearing .
Who is the one who is deaf or hard of hearing in your family?
Figure 6.1: Deafness in the Pupil’s Family
From this figure, the researchers can notice that the highest number of pupils which represent (40%) claims that they inherit the hearing disability from another one in the family, (5%) shows that they inherited it from their fathers, and (26%) claims that they inherited it from both .Others ( 29%)shows that no one in their family is DHH because they acquire it during their lives . The answers of this question explain in details the previous question. The purpose of these two questions is to know the reasons of hearing disability and the nature of the family of DHH pupils……
Do you use :
Figure 7.1: The Use of Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants
The result obtained indicates that the majority of pupils (66%) do not use neither hearing aids nor cochlear implants. (19%) use cochlear implants, and (15%) use hearing aids. This may affect their learning process of English since hearing aids and cochlear implants play an important role in receiving sounds. Therefore, D/HH pupils have an access to the spoken language.
Means of Communication and Learning Modalities
How do you like best for teacher to communicate with you ?
Figure 8.1 : Pupils’ Preferred Way of Communication
Pupils are asked to give their opinion about their way of communication in class and between their teacher and their classmates .The results denotes that (84%) prefer their teacher to communicate with them through sign language because it is their first language, and (16%) communicating via speech becouse they are moderate hearing loss. What is interesting in this data is that the pupils who are deaf prefer to communicate via sign language while the hard of hearing pupil’s preferred way of communication is speech, but not a fluent speech. So, teachers must use both sign and spoken languages in their instruction.
Do you understand more English when the teacher uses :
Figure 9.1: The language through which D/HH Pupils Understand English
The histogram in Fig (9.1) indicates that, the majority of the learners (94%) understand the English course when the teacher use the Algerian sign language because they study Arabic by Algerian sign language as well as French .So they are not able to understand the English course by ASL or BSL.
Do you feel good about how to communicate in class :
Figure 10.1: Pupils’ Satisfaction with the way of Communication in Class
Regarding pupils ‘answers (84%) stated that they feel good when they communicate in class by Algerian sign language and (16%) said they did not like their way of communication. It is apparent from this fig that the majority of pupils feel good, comfortable in communication while using Algerian sign language because they like their first language.
Does nonverbal communication ( facial expression , gestures , and body language ) help you to achieve communication ?
Figure 11.1: The advantage of Nonverbal Communication
This figure shows clearly that the highest number of pupils (97%) claims that they like nonverbal communication because sign language combine all the nonverbal communication ; facial expression , gestures , and body language .
Do you need a sign language interpreter :
Figure 12.1: The Need of Sign Language Interpreter
The above figure indicates that (56%) of pupils do not need a sign language interpreter because they prefer to communicate directly with the person himself without interpreter, but (44%) prefer interpreter because they need translation.
Are you confortable communicating by writing :
Figure13.1: Writing as a Way of Communication
The majority of subjects (69%) state that they are confortable while communicating by writing, but (31%) state that they are not confortable becouse they are not obliged to take pen and paper with them each time .
Does visual means help you in learning the language
Figure 14.1: The Help of Visual Means in Learning the Language
This question examines the pupil’s opinion about the help of visual learning. The figure above shows that the majority of learners (97%) respond by “Yes”. That is to say that the learner are aware about the benefits of visual learning. It is one of good way of learning English by using such as tables, charts, pictures….
Do you prefer individual or team work or both?
Figure 15.1: Pupils’ Preferred Way of Work
In this item, the pupils are invited to say whether they prefer individual work or team work or both .The researchers aim is to see the pupils preferred type of study. The majority (44%) has mentioned that they prefer individual work in order to avoid noise and consontratrate in their work separately; the majority of those pupils are active and good in their study. (40%) state that they prefer team work in order to help each other in doing the task , and (16%) prefer both , they claim that they, have no problem ; they can study individually or in group. In this case variation is the key.
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students Motivation and Attitude Towards Learning English as a Foreign Language
Do like English Language?
Figure16.1: Pupil’s Attitudes towards English Language
The aim of this question is to see whether the pupils like English or not. Pupils are asked to answer by very likely, likely, neutral, not likely, and very unlikely. As far as the result obtained, the researchers find that (41%) like English a lot , they respond by “very likely” ,because they like the teacher very much , and (16%) respond by “likely ” . In the other hand (34%) respond by “neutral ” ,and (6%) respond “not likely ” and (3%) respond by ” very unlikely ” because of the challenges that face them in learning this language .
Do you think that the knowledge of English is important ?
Figure 17.1: The importance of the Knowledge of English
This question examines if the knowledge of English is important or not ; (12% ) respond by ” very important” , (19% ) respond by” important “. In the other hand , because of the challenges that face pupils in learning English (41%) respond by “moderately important ” , (22%) respond by “slightly important ” ,and (6% ) respond by ” not important “.What is interesting in this data is that , the participant were aware about the fact that English is the language of technology , it is an international language .
Do you think you will use the knowledge of English language in the future ?
Figure 18.1: The Use of English in the Future
The researchers find a big contradiction in the answer of this question. (25%) states that the knowledge of English language is important in the future , they responds by “Yes” , and (34%) responds by “No” , but the majority of them answer by “No” but when they find the words “internet and Facebook ” they automatically choose them . What is interesting in this data is that, teacher from time to time should open discussion in class about where pupils think to use the knowledge of English language in the future. Speaking and writing about this subject could motivate the pupils to learn English , it also increase the pupil’s way of imagination and thinking about the future . The obtained data can help the teacher to make interesting lessons for their learners .Would you learn English language, if it was not the compulsory subject ?
Figure 19.1: Pupils’ Willingness to Learn English if it was not a Compulsory Subject
According to the data in the figure the researchers notice that halve of pupils (16) which represent (50%) state that they want to learn English even if it was not compulsory subject because they like the English language . while the remainder would not becouse of the difficulties of this language .
Difficulties of Learning English as a Foreign Language by Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students:
What do you consider your first / second language? Put 1 for the first and 2 for second
Figure 20. 1: First and Second Language from the Perspective of D/HH pupils
In this question all the pupils consider their first language as Algerian sign language, they respond by (100%) becouse they like the sign language very much.
Do you benefit from technological materials in your English class ?
Figure 21.1: Pupils’ Benefit from Technological Materials
This question examines if the pupils benefit from the technological materials in the English class. (53%) respond by “Yes” and (47%) respond by “No”. There is a sort of difficulties in understanding this question because the pupils who responds by “yes” think that the materials are just the one their teacher use ( picture, chart , and very few times data projector) ,but in fact there many other kinds of materials used to teach the four skills , vocabulary , grammar to DHH pupils , but unfortunately those materials are not available .
Is English Language easy
Is Arabic Language easy
Figure 22.1: The Difficulty and Ease of English/ Arabic Languages from the D/HH Pupils Point of View
The aim of asking this question is to compare between the English and Arabic language if they have the same degree of difficulties or not. Most of the pupils (78%) claims that English language is difficult and only (22%) state the it is easy .Concerning the Arabic language (84%) respond by “easy” and only (16%) respond by “difficult”. From this data the researchers can see that , the participant who states that Arabic is easy , this does not mean that they can write a correct meaningful word , sentence , paragraph in Arabic without spelling mistakes , this easy is related to reading and comprehension . English is very difficult for DHH pupils because they face many obstacles such as , a wrong shaping of letters, size of letters, spacing of letters and words, mixing capital and small letters , spelling mistakes ; learners need to pay closer attention to spelling since incorrect spelling hinders effective communication and sometimes may change the meaning of the text. Deaf and hard of hearing pupils have problems in composition writing because they are not fluent in reading, have limited vocabulary, cannot read correctly , have a short term memory , lack of imagination ….
Difficulties of Learning English
The purpose of this question is to investigate the learners’ difficulties in learning English as a foreign language. Learners are asked to answer by very well , well , average , little ,and not at all . Each level is discussed separately in these questions.
Questions Total very well% well% Average% Little % Not at all% Total
1. I am able to do grammar activities without difficulty. 7 0% 14% 86% 0% 0% 100%
2.Iam able to read English words,sentences,and paragraphs 7 0% 0% 86% 14% 0% 100%
3.Iam able to write words, sentences and clause in English 7 0% 0% 57% 43% 0% 100%
4.Iam able to write English sentences together as a group 7 0% 43% 14% 43% 0% 100%
5.I am able to complete sentences 7 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 100%
6.I understand the teacher when she explains the lesson 7 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% 100%
7.I understand the teacher when she asked a question 7 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 100%
Table 23.1: Difficulties of Learning English of First Level Pupils
In question (1) which is about the grammar difficulty, the majority of first year pupils (86%) respond by “average ” and only (14% ) respond by “well”. In the other hand, in the question (2) which is about reading skill, (86%) respond by “average” and (14%) respond by “little” . The third question (3) which is about writing skill (57%) respond by “average” and (43%) respond by “little”. Another question (4) about writing in group ; (43%) respond by “well” , (14%) respond by “average” ,and (43%) respond by “little” . The fifth question (5) which is about filling gaps , all the pupils (100%) respond by “not at all” .In the following question (6) all the learners(100%) respond by “little” . In the last question all the pupils (100%) respond by “not at all”.
Questions Total very well% well% Average% Little% Not at all% Total
Q1 7 0% 0% 0% 86% 14% 100%
Q2 7 0% 0% 0% 86% 14% 100%
Q3 7 0% 0% 0% 86% 14% 100%
Q4 7 0% 0% 0% 100% 0% 100%
Q5 7 0% 29% 43% 14% 14% 100%
Q6 7 29% 57% 14% 0% 0% 100%
Q7 7 0% 0% 86% 0% 14% 100%
Table 23. 2: Difficulties of Learning English of Second Level Pupils
In question (1) which is about the grammar difficulty, the majority of second year pupils (86%) respond by “little ” and (14% ) respond by “not at all”. In the other hand, in the question (2) which is about reading skill, (86%) respond by “little” and (14%) respond by “not at all”. The third question (3) which is about writing skill (86%) respond by “little” and (14%) respond by “not at all”. Another question (4) about writing in group; all the pupils (100%) respond by “little”. The fifth question (5) which is about filling gaps, (29%) of pupils respond by “well”, (43%) respond by “average”, (14%) respond by “little”, and (14%) respond by “not at all”. In the following question (6), the majority of pupils (57%) respond by “well”, (29%) respond by “very well”, and (14%) respond by “average”. In the last question (7), (86%) respond by “average” and (14%) respond by “not at all”.
Questions Total Very well(%) Well(%) Average(%) Little(%) Not at all (%) Total(%)
Q1 10 0% 0% 30% 40% 30% 100%
Q2 10 0% 0% 0% 20% 80% 100%
Q3 10 0% 0% 0% 40% 60% 100%
Q4 10 0% 20% 0% 10% 70% 100%
Q5 10 0% 0% 30% 40% 30% 100%
Q6 10 0% 0% 30% 50% 20% 100%
Q7 10 0% 30% 20% 20% 30% 100%
Table 23.3: Difficulties of Learning English of Third Level Pupils
In question (1) which is about the grammar difficulty, (30%) of third year pupils respond by “average ” , (40% ) respond by “little”, and (30%)respond by “not at all”. In the other hand, in the question (2) which is about reading skill(20%) respond by “little” and (80%) respond by “not at all”. The third question (3) which is about writing skill (40%) respond by “little” and (60%) respond by “not at all”. Another question (4) about writing in group; (20%) respond by “well”,(10%)respond by “little” , and(70%) respond by “not at all” . The fifth question (5) which is about filling gaps, (30%) of pupils respond by “average”, (50%) respond by “little” , and (30%) respond by “not at all”. In the following question (6), the majority of pupils (30%) respond by “average”, (50%) respond by “little”, and (20%) respond by “not at all”. In the last question (7), (30%) respond by “well” (20%) respond by “average” , (20%) respond by “little” , and (30%) respond by “not at all”.
Questions Total Very well(%) Well(%) Average(%) Little(%) Not at all (%) Total(%)
Q1 8 0% 25% 63% 0% 12% 100%
Q2 8 0% 0% 0% 25% 75% 100%
Q3 8 0% 0% 0% 62% 38% 100%
Q4 8 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 100%
Q5 8 0% 0% 88% 0% 12% 100%
Q6 8 0% 88% 0% 0% 12% 100%
Q7 8 0% 88% 0% 0% 12% 100%
Table 24. 4: Difficulties of Learning English of Fourth Level Pupils
In question (1) which is about the grammar difficulty, the majority of fourth year pupils (63%) respond by “average ” ,(25%) respond by “well”, and (12% ) respond by “not at all”. In the other hand, in the question (2) which is about reading skill, (25%) respond by “little” and (75%) respond by “not at all”. The third question (3) which is about writing skill (62%) respond by “little” and (38%) respond by “not at all”. Another question (4) about writing in group; all the pupils (100%) respond by “not at all”. The fifth question (5) which is about filling gaps, (88%) of pupils respond by “average”, (12%) respond by “not at all”. In the following question (6), the majority of pupils (88%) respond by “well”, (12%) respond by “not at all”. In the last question (7), (88%) respond by “well” and (12%) respond by “not at all”.
For the ability to do grammar activities without difficulty (86%) from the first year responds by ‘average’, ( 86%) from the second year responds by ‘little’, (40%) from third year responds by ‘little’ ,and in fourth year (63%) responds by’ average’. From the obtained results all pupils of the four levels have no difficulty
Could you read the following lip shapes and depict the letters pronounced.
This question is not answered by all the pupils what indicates their inability to read lips.
3. Teacher’s interview:
Theme One: General Information
Question 01: How old are you?
“I am 27”
The interviewed teacher is aged 27 years. This may affect the teaching process positively since the teacher is in her prime age therefore, she can teach the pupils effectively.
Question 02: What is your highest degree?
“Well I have a Master Degree in English applied linguistics”
The teacher holds a Master degree and her area of specialization is Applied Linguistics. Despite the fact that the teacher had qualification in teaching English, she had not a certification in special education and she is not specialized in teaching D/HH pupils. The lack of specialized English teachers of the D/HH leads the majority of teachers to be recruited in special schools without certification and without special training. This can affect the effectiveness of both teaching and learning.
Question 03: How long have you been teaching English for Deaf and Hard of Hearing learners?
“I have been teaching deaf learners since June 2014”
The teacher indicates that she had approximately four years of teaching experience which signifies that teaching experience may be one of the hindrances to teaching English to D/HH pupils. Experience is one of the significant factors of successful teaching. It is through years of teaching and experiences that teacher becomes expert in the field.
Question 04: Was teaching Deaf/Hard of Hearing learners your first choice?
This question sought to recognize whether teaching D/HH pupils is the teacher’s first choice or no. What can be interpreted from the teacher response is that teaching D/HH pupils was not her first choice.
“Of course no, when I was graduated I thought that I would be a teacher in high school for example. But, I was not so lucky to be so”
Theme Two: Communication Means and Technologies
Question 05: How do you communicate with your learners, what communication means do you use?
The only mode used by teacher to communicate with her pupils is sign language
“I communicate with my students through sign language because it is there first language”
Question 06: Do you know/ learn sign language very well?
This question sought to know the effective use of sign language by the teacher which is the only mode of communication and conveying the information with D/HH pupils. As the teacher indicates, she is not effective in her use of sign language. Not being proficient in using sign language may pose another hindrance to effective learning of English. This may also hinder effective teaching of English as a foreign language because the teacher lacks the proper and effective technicalities of using sign language which is the only mode of communication and conveying the information for D/HH pupils. “I know sign language but not very well, I m not fluent signer. It is difficult and needs a long time to learn”
Question 07: Is there a sign language interpreter in classes?
English sign language interpreters are not available during English classes
“In fact there is a sign language interpreter in this special school but he can’t interpret English. The teacher himself is a sign language interpreter in his class”
Question 08: Is the school adequately equipped with teaching and learning technological resources?
This question sought to check the availability of learning and teaching technological resources in the special school. The teacher asserted that there is just an FM system which is used only for the preparatory classes. Concerning the middle classes as she added, there is only a data projector and no FM system is provided. Middle school pupils are supposed to learn English what necessitates the existence of FM systems and other technologies to provide them with the full access to this phonic language. In this special school there is a little if no availability of teaching and learning technological resources specifically in foreign languages what constitute another problem of teaching and learning process of English. The following quotation better exemplifies teacher’s response: “For the preparatory class there is an FM system which helps learners in the articulation of Arabic sounds. But, we don’t use it in the primary and middle classes. There is only a data projector”
Question 09: What kind of material do you use in teaching English?
The teacher uses the data projector to support her English lessons by displaying ASL or BSL videos.
“In teaching English I use the data projector because deaf learners enjoy watching videos especially if they are in ASL or BSL. Sometimes I deliberately make them watch BSL or ASL videos so that I observe whether they can see the differences between different sign languages”
Using pictures, cards and maps to visualize the content are another material used by the teacher. This implies that the teacher is aware of the importance of visual representation of information for D/HH pupils.
“In addition to the data projector, I try to visualize everything as possible as I can for the learners via pictures, cards, maps … etc”
Theme Three: Strategies of Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students
Question 10: What is the teaching method you use it in teaching English to deaf and Hard of Hearing pupils (Oral method, Manual method, Total communication method, or bilingual – Bicultural method)?
“Teaching English for D/HH requires some modifications to the traditional teaching. I use total communication method because I receive a good interaction when I use it”
Question 11: Do you teach English via: signing (national or international sign language), cueing (cued speech), or speaking?
“When I am explaining the lesson I speak and use Algerian sign language at the same time”
Question 12: Could you please tell us how to teach the English four skills to DHH learners?
“Honestly speaking, concerning the four skills you have to know that D/HH learners are not able to master them. My role in the class is to focus more on the general idea of the texts and interpret it through sign language. Sometimes I am obliged to omit speaking and reading lessons”
Question 13: How do you teach English vocabulary to D/HH learners?
“For vocabulary, I write new words and their equivalents on the board then I illustrate them with pictures or charts and sometimes I find myself acting until they understand”
Question 14: How do you teach grammar?
“If the topic of the lesson is grammar, first, I write examples to introduce the target structures then I ask them questions about the examples to see whether they can elicit the target structures, next I identify the forms and their uses and finally I conclude the rule and ask them to do the tasks”
Question 15: As we know D/HH pupils are following the same English program of their hearing peers, do you think that this program is workable and fits the D/HH learners’ needs?
The teacher response denotes that she has a negative attitude towards the curriculum and based on what she said, it does not fit the pupils’ needs. According to her D/HH pupils have the same curriculum designed for hearing pupils and it contains the same tasks which cannot be done by D/HH pupils. This indicates that the curriculum of English language is designed to express particular objectives that the teachers cannot interpret and achieve. This constitutes another factor that hinders the teaching and learning process of English as a foreign language and calls for the importance of designing a special curriculum, particularly in foreign languages, for D/HH.
“Yes they have the same curriculum designed for hearing learners. But, based on my experience I can say that it does not fit their needs because it contains many speaking and listening activities which cannot be taught to D/HH learners”
Question 16: Do you adjust it to meet the needs of D/HH learners? How?
“Certainly, I have to adopt the curriculum to fit their needs”
The teacher confirmed that she must adopt the curriculum to fit D/HH pupils’ needs. Despite the fact that the second part of question was very clear, no sufficient information can be detected from the teacher’s answer. What can be interpreted from her response is that the curriculum adjustments depend on the pupil’s level and lesson’s objective.
“The adjustment of the curriculum depends on the learners’ level and the learning objective of the lesson”
Theme Four: Teaching and Learning Difficulties of English as a Foreign Language for D/HH Students
Question 17: Have you ever received any training in special education?
“No, as I said at the beginning of this interview, it was my own diligence to learn the sign language and to find out the differences between American or British and the Algerian sign language. But, I can’t deny that my colleagues who are special educators gave me an idea how the training is going. They studied different Algerian sign languages, semiotics, and how to treat D/HH psychologically and ICT”
Question 18: Do you think that your students like English courses? Please say why?
“Here it depends, but in general I can say yes, because from time to time they tell me that they like English maybe because they get good marks. Another reason why they like it is because English is the language of technology. They use it when surfing on the internet, sometimes they tell me that they chat with their friend on Facebook”
Question 19: What difficulties do D/HH pupils face when learning English?
“The only way for D/HH learners can gather information is visually and at the end of the term for example, will be tested on what he/she has learned. This could be nothing from the alphabet to writing a paragraph. D/HH learners face many challenges in learning English as a foreign language such as: language deficiencies, I mean the interpretation from English to sign language, lip-reading, social concerns, curriculum and instructions, problems of understanding”
Question 20: What is expected from your pupils to learn? What are the aims of teaching English to D/HH pupils?
Regarding teaching English objective to D/HH pupils, the teacher claimed that since D/HH pupils follow the same curriculum, she had the same teaching objective as with hearing pupils. But, she takes into consideration pupils’ disability by adopting the curriculum their needs.
“Look, since D/HH learners have the same curriculum designed for hearing students, they are expected to learn the basis of this language but I take into consideration their disability that is why I have to adopt the curriculum from time to time”
Question 21: What are the main difficulties you face when teaching your DHH learners?
“They are numerous. The main problems I face when I am teaching English to D/HH learners are: not being fluent in sign language and this is due to language gaps, difficulties related to teaching techniques; if you don’t have proper teaching materials, teaching and learning English is very difficult, lack of special needs training, curriculum structure; sometimes I can’t change much in the curriculum because learners want do something else, disability itself; D/HH learners need special treatment psychologically and pedagogically, time is another problem; D/HH learners need more time to understand their lessons”
Question 22: What kind of problem do you face when teaching English vocabulary, grammar and the four skills?
“Concerning vocabulary, I have difficulties in explaining abstract concepts such as peace and patience. Synonyms and antonyms for example, love, prefer and like. All these three words have the same sign”
“The problem here is that D/HH learners have a short memory. Although I do my all to make them understand the rules for example, in teaching tenses, they forgot those rules and mix between them”
“Now for the four skills, speaking and listening are linked to each other and since D/HH students have no access to spoken language, the problem here is that they cannot hear and differentiate between sounds such as vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs”
“Reading and writing are linked to vocabulary knowledge. Because of their short memory and their linguistic gaps, they cannot write a meaningful sentence or a coherent paragraph”
Question 23: How do you consider your pupils’ level in English? (High, average or low). Does it enable them to express themselves in English?
As the teacher stated, the pupils’ level ranges between average and low what indicates a poor achievement in learning English as a foreign language.
“Sincerely speaking, it ranges between average and low”
The teacher claims that her pupils are not able to express themselves in English. This is due to their disability .”No, they cannot express themselves in English”
Theme five: Teacher’s suggestion
Question 24: As a summary what can you say as suggestions to overcome these difficulties and improve deaf students’ level in English?
The teacher insisted on the importance of adopting the curriculum by the experts and providing effective teaching technologies for teaching D/HH pupils. This would be one of the effective solutions to overcome the difficulties of teaching and learning English as a foreign language by D/HH pupils but is this enough? Improvement is not targeted just to these two elements but it must be also directed to teacher and pupils as well as teaching facilities and technologies.
“Well, I propose and insist on two things: the curriculum must be adapted by special needs trainers and experts and the ministry must provide us with high technology to teach D/HH learners”
The analysis of the classroom observation came out with significant results
The analysis of the pupil’s questionnaire came out with significant results
The analysis of the teacher’s interview came out with significant results