Epidemiologic Triangle Of Tuberculosis

How do you break the epidemiologic triangle?

How to Break the Epidemiologic TriangleFollow proper hand hygiene at all times.Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) while treating patients.Kill germs by disinfecting high-touch areas regularly.Clean and disinfect lobbies, exam rooms, bathrooms and other common areas often..

Where is TB most common?

Worldwide, TB is most common in Africa, the West Pacific, and Eastern Europe. These regions are plagued with factors that contribute to the spread of TB, including the presence of limited resources, HIV infection, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. (See Epidemiology.)

What are the 3 major types of epidemiological studies?

Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000). A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time.

What are epidemiological factors?

1: Epidemiologic Factors Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.

Who is the first epidemiologist?

Epidemiology has helped develop methodology used in clinical research, public health studies and, to a lesser extent, basic research in the biological sciences. The Greek physician Hippocrates is known as the father of medicine, and was the first epidemiologist. Hippocrates sought a logic to sickness.

What are the 3 main elements of descriptive epidemiology?

Descriptive epidemiology covers time, place, and person.

What is the epidemiology of tuberculosis?

It is estimated that nearly 2 billion people (about one fourth of the world’s population) are infected with M. tuberculosis. Every year, about 10 million people develop TB disease and 1.6 million people die of it. In fact, TB disease is the leading cause of death due to infectious disease in the world.

What are the 5 W’s of epidemiology?

The difference is that epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the 5 W’s: diagnosis or health event (what), person (who), place (where), time (when), and causes, risk factors, and modes of transmission (why/how).

What are the stages of infectious disease?

The five periods of disease (sometimes referred to as stages or phases) include the incubation, prodromal, illness, decline, and convalescence periods (Figure 2). The incubation period occurs in an acute disease after the initial entry of the pathogen into the host (patient).

What are the three components of the epidemiological triangle quizlet?

The epidemiological Triangle model includes three key elements: the agent, host, and environment.

What is the agent in the epidemiologic triangle?

The Agent—“What” The agent is the cause of the disease. When studying the epidemiology of most infectious diseases, the agent is a microbe—an organism too small to be seen with the naked eye. Disease-causing microbes are bacteria, virus, fungi, and protozoa (a type of parasite).

Is TB the leading infectious disease?

TB is the leading infectious disease killer in the world, claiming 1.5 million lives each year. Of the 10 million individuals who became ill with TB in 2018, approximately three million were “missed” by health systems and do not get the care they need, allowing the disease to continue to be transmitted.

What is the most common mode of indirect transmission?

Indirect contact infections spread when an infected person sneezes or coughs, sending infectious droplets into the air. If healthy people inhale the infectious droplets, or if the contaminated droplets land directly in their eyes, nose or mouth, they risk becoming ill.

What is an agent Factor?

A factor is a type of trader who receives and sells goods on commission, called factorage. A factor is a mercantile fiduciary transacting business in his own name and not disclosing his principal.

Is an epidemiologist a doctor?

Are epidemiologists considered medical doctors? No. While epidemiologists study and investigate the causes and sources of diseases in much the same way as medical doctors, they’re not considered actual physicians. Perhaps the biggest reason why is treatment.

What are the three elements of the epidemiologic triangle?

A number of models of disease causation have been proposed. Among the simplest of these is the epidemiologic triad or triangle, the traditional model for infectious disease. The triad consists of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together.

Which country has the most TB cases?

In 2019, the 30 high TB burden countries accounted for 87% of new TB cases. Eight countries account for two thirds of the total, with India leading the count, followed by Indonesia, China, the Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and South Africa.

What causes Ebola?

What causes Ebola? Ebola is caused by viruses in the Ebolavirus and Filoviridae family. Ebola is considered a zoonosis, meaning that the virus is present in animals and is transmitted to humans. How this transmission occurs at the onset of an outbreak in humans is unknown.

Why it’s important to know how diseases are transmitted?

Because infectious diseases can spread through direct or indirect contact, everyone is at risk of illness. You have a higher risk of becoming ill when you’re around sick people or in areas susceptible to germs.

How old do study participants need to be before they can legally agree to participate in a research study?

In the committee’s experience, most IRBs require investigators to seek assent from children over the age of 6 or 7 years. The judgment about assent may apply to all the children who are to participate in a study or to each child individually.

What are the four methods of epidemiology?

Observational cohort. Observational case-control. Observational cross-sectional. Not an analytical or epidemiologic study.