Question: What Is Epidemiological Concept?

What are the three components of epidemiology?

The epidemiologic triangle is made up of three parts: agent, host and environment..

Which is the most powerful epidemiological study?

Randomized, controlled clinical trials are the most powerful designs possible in medical research, but they are often expensive and time-consuming. Well-designed observational studies can provide useful insights on disease causation, even though they do not constitute proof of causes.

What are the two main goals of epidemiology?

The objectives of epidemiology include the following: to identify the etiology or cause of disease. to determine the extent of disease. to study the progression of disease.

What are the basic principles of epidemiology?

Principles of EpidemiologyDistribution – Epidemiology is concerned with the frequency and pattern of health events in a population. … Determinants – Epidemiology is also used to search for causes and other factors that influence the occurrence of health-related events.More items…•Nov 3, 2006

What are the 3 major types of epidemiologic studies?

Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000). A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time.

What is the purpose of epidemiology?

Epidemiology identifies the distribution of diseases, factors underlying their source and cause, and methods for their control; this requires an understanding of how political, social and scientific factors intersect to exacerbate disease risk, which makes epidemiology a unique science.

What are the steps in the epidemiological process?

Section 2: Steps of an Outbreak InvestigationPrepare for field work.Establish the existence of an outbreak.Verify the diagnosis.Construct a working case definition.Find cases systematically and record information.Perform descriptive epidemiology.Develop hypotheses.Evaluate hypotheses epidemiologically.More items…

What are epidemiological issues?

Epidemiology has been defined as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specific populations and the application of this study to control of health problems.”3 It tends, for the most part, to use the “medical model” of health need, viewing need in terms of the occurrence …

What are the aims of epidemiology?

The principal aim of epidemiology is to identify factors related to the occurrence of disease. Identification of these factors both causal ( causation) and risk factors, enable developing a rational basis for prevention ( epidemiology, prevention).

Who is Abdel Omran?

In 1971 Abdel R. Omran was professor of epidemiology at the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. … He was then the principal statistician for the U.S. Public Health Service, and he later became chief of its Division of Public Health Methods.

What is the concept of epidemiology?

Abstract. Epidemiology is a population science that underpins health improvement and health care, and is concerned with the pattern, frequency, trends, and causes of disease. This book teaches its applications to population health research, policy-making, health service planning, health promotion, and clinical care.

What is epidemiological theory?

In demography and medical geography, epidemiological transition is a theory which “describes changing population patterns in terms of fertility, life expectancy, mortality, and leading causes of death.” For example, a phase of development marked by a sudden increase in population growth rates brought by improved food …

What are the 5 main objectives of epidemiology?

In the mid-1980s, five major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice were identified: public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluation, and linkages.

What is the strongest study design?

A well-designed randomized controlled trial, where feasible, is generally the strongest study design for evaluating an intervention’s effectiveness.

What are the four methods of epidemiology?

Observational cohort. Observational case-control. Observational cross-sectional. Not an analytical or epidemiologic study.

What is the best definition for epidemiology?

By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).

What are the five stages of epidemiological transition?

The epidemiologic transition describes changing patterns of population age distributions, mortality, fertility, life expectancy, and causes of death.

What is epidemiology and examples?

Epidemiological studies measure the risk of illness or death in an exposed population compared to that risk in an identical, unexposed population (for example, a population the same age, sex, race and social status as the exposed population).

What are the measures of epidemiology?

The most commonly used rates in epidemiology to evaluate morbidity are incidence and prevalence. These describe the frequency of disease during a given time period. Mortality rate, also a commonly used epidemiological rate, is a rate used to measure deaths and not morbidity.

What is an epidemiologic triangle?

The Epidemiologic Triangle, sometimes referred to as the Epidemiologic Triad, is a tool that scientists use for addressing the three components that contribute to the spread of disease: an external agent, a susceptible host and an environment that brings the agent and host together.

What are the causes of epidemiological transition?

This epidemiological transition is the result of a series of interrelated factors: Demographic changes: the reduction in childhood mortality leads to a decrease in fertility rates. As a consequence, a higher percentage of the population reaches the adult age and develops adult-related diseases.