Question: What Is The Epidemiology Of Tuberculosis?

What population is most affected by tuberculosis?

Racial and ethnic minority groups continue to be disproportionately affected by TB disease.

In 2019, Asian persons continued to represent the largest proportion of persons with TB (35.3%), followed by Hispanic persons (30.2%), Black/African American persons (19.7%), and White persons (11.4%)..

What age group is most affected by tuberculosis?

Historical data suggest that the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is highest during adolescence and young adulthood, and that between the ages of 12 and 24 years there may also be a transient increase in the risk of progression to disease after infection compared with children or older adults [5, 6].

How was TB cured?

TB can usually be completely cured by the person with TB taking a combination of TB drugs. The only time that TB may not be curable is when the person has drug resistant TB.

Which 5 states are most affected by TB?

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2018 However, considering incidence rates by reporting area, Alaska (8.5 cases per 100,000 persons) has the highest TB rate, followed by Hawaii (8.4), New York City (6.7), California (5.3), the District of Columbia (5.1), and Texas (3.9).

Can you smoke if you have TB?

Smoking increases the risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB), increases the risk of recurrent TB and impairs the response to treatment of the disease.

Can you get TB from kissing?

You cannot get TB germs from: Saliva shared from kissing. TB is NOT spread through shaking someone’s hand, sharing food, touching bed linens or toilet seats, or sharing toothbrushes.

WHO TB epidemiology?

Worldwide, TB is one of the top 10 causes of death and the leading cause from a single infectious agent (above HIV/AIDS). In 2019, an estimated 10 million people fell ill with tuberculosis(TB) worldwide. 5.6 million men, 3.2 million women and 1.2 million children. TB is present in all countries and age groups.

What happens if you have tuberculosis?

The bacteria usually attack the lungs . But TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain . If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal . TB disease was once the leading cause of death in the United States .

Is tuberculosis contagious by touch?

You can’t get TB by touching an infected person. Tuberculosis germs don’t stick to clothing or skin; they hang out in the air. You also can’t get TB by: Giving an infected person a hug or a kiss.

When was tuberculosis at its worst?

Although relatively little is known about its frequency before the 19th century, its incidence is thought to have peaked between the end of the 18th century and the end of the 19th century.

How was TB treated in the 1950s?

Instead, by 1955 the consensus was to use all three drugs in a combination called Triple Therapy – streptomycin, PAS and isoniazid. The recommended course was two years.

Who is at high risk for tuberculosis?

Persons who have been Recently Infected with TB Bacteria Persons who have immigrated from areas of the world with high rates of TB. Children less than 5 years of age who have a positive TB test. Groups with high rates of TB transmission, such as homeless persons, injection drug users, and persons with HIV infection.

How many types of TB are there?

There are two types of TB conditions: TB disease and latent TB infection. But, if their TB germs become active, they can develop .

What cultural group is most affected by tuberculosis?

The percentage of TB cases that occur in Hispanic or Latino, Black or African American, and Asian persons is higher than expected based on the percentage of these minorities in the U.S. population. In 2019, about 88% of the TB cases reported in the United States occurred among racial and ethnic minority groups.

Where is TB endemic?

Countries in the top 10 worldwide in terms of incidence rates are mostly in Africa. In South Africa and Swaziland, the best estimate is that at least one in every 100 people develops TB each year. Figure 1. Estimated tuberculosis incidence rates per 100,000 population, 2012.

Where is tuberculosis found in the world?

Most of the people who fall ill with TB live in low- and middle-income countries, but TB is present all over the world. About half of all people with TB can be found in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and South Africa.

Where does tuberculosis come from?

tuberculosis was originated in East Africa about 3 million years ago. A growing pool of evidence suggests that the current strains of M. tuberculosis is originated from a common ancestor around 20,000 – 15,000 years ago.

How is TB transmitted in human?

TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected. However, not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick.

Did anyone survive TB in the 1800s?

By the dawn of the 19th century, tuberculosis—or consumption—had killed one in seven of all people that had ever lived. Throughout much of the 1800s, consumptive patients sought “the cure” in sanatoriums, where it was believed that rest and a healthful climate could change the course of the disease.

How can Tuberculosis be avoided?

Stop the Spread of TBTake all of your medicines as they’re prescribed, until your doctor takes you off them.Keep all your doctor appointments.Always cover your mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. … Wash your hands after coughing or sneezing.Don’t visit other people and don’t invite them to visit you.More items…•Dec 16, 2020

Was tuberculosis an epidemic?

Tuberculosis has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. It reached epidemic proportions in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries, earning the sobriquet, “Captain Among these Men of Death.” Then it began to decline.