Question 1 1

Question 1

1.1 Critically analyse the research findings on high potential employees in the article.

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The article highlighted the importance of identifying and developing high potential employees based on scientific evidence reviewed by the authors. The article further emphasizes the importance of following a simple process to identify high potential employees to increase the chances of success for the HiPo intervention program. According to the article there is a direct relationship between financial success of the organization and the availability of high potential employees within the organization, this point is further supported by Pareto principle whereby “the top 20% accounts for 80% of organizational output”.

Throughout the article high potential employees are referred to by different names such as top talent, top employees, top performers and star performers. The article did not attempt to differentiate top performers from top employees; however, there is subtle difference. In the article high potential employees or top talent are defined as the vital few who account for the biggest portion of organizational output. Clearly the success of any organization is linked to few employees at the top who drives the performance. The question has to be asked if this narrative will be allowed to carry on, clearly if processes and interventions are put in place to drive the organizational success within all ranks of the organization, then organizations will be more successful and sustainable. That would eventually develop a capable workforce in the long run, instead of having the selected few at the top to carry the burden for the organization success.

The article indicated that high potential employees are force multipliers, because they have positive influence on the other team members. The ripple effect of having a top employee on the team is estimated to increase team effectiveness by 5-15%. This effectiveness translates into higher productivity of the team with high potential employee in the mix.
In light of the fact that high potential employees are important for the overall success of organizations, then the there is a strong case for organizations to identify, invest and develop these employees. The process of identifying employees for HiPo intervention program is equally important, hence before an organization embarks on the identification it must first clearly define “potential for what?” according to Adams (2011:8) there are four generally accepted definitions for potential which can guide organizations to ensure alignment with business goals and objectives:
• Potential to move into specific senior management roles,
• Potential to move two levels or more levels higher within the organization,
• Potential to take on a broader scope of responsibility and leadership roles, and
• Consistently high performance level.
It must be noted that all the four definitions focuses on the future and that brings a challenge because future success of the current high potential employee is not 100% guaranteed, hence abilities, attitudes and drive together with past work experience and performance must be also be considered. However, with coaching and targeted development, the odds of success are increased.

Furthermore, the article argues that individual career success is not a key indicator for a high potential employee and the evidence to support this argument is because there are top leaders who have attained individual career success but cannot engage and positively influence their teams or subordinates. This is the case because one of the key indicators for high potential employees is social skills which are crucial for establishing and maintaining cooperative working relationships. Therefore, it is essential that HiPo interventions place emphasis on predicting which employees are likely to become key drivers of organizational performance by using measurable qualities as indicators of potential.

Scientific research has identified three general markers for potential that should be used to identify high potential employees and these generic markers are: ability, social skills and drive. According to the article these three generic markers for high potential employees cut across all fields and industries and can be fairly identified and measured. To be classified as a high potential an employee has to be skillful and knowledgeable to perform critical tasks in their current job and possess social skills which will enable him or her to manage others and have ambition to want to succeed and achieve more. Adams (2011:8) also outlined three dimensions that should to be used to identify high potential employees and to some degree these dimensions are very similar to the three general markers indicated in the article and they are: foundational, growth and career dimensions. Berke (2003:20) stated that “a key element among high potential employees is the ability to learn continuously and adapt to new challenges and in unfamiliar circumstances”, this statement shares sentiments as expressed in the article since drive is one of the mentioned measurable qualities for high potential employees.

There are various assessments that organizations can use to further uncover the employees who will succeed if placed in the HiPo intervention program. Adams (2011:8) advises that these assessments should be aligned to the organization goals and objectives. Some of the common assessments to be used before finalizing the HiPo intervention list include knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes. Since the HiPo intervention involves spending company money, it must be well planned and thorough in the selection and the assessment methods must aligned to the desired outcome of getting the best employees.

Since HiPo intervention program is usually for selected few, organizations have to be careful when implementing high potential employees’ identification process not to isolate other employees who might not make the cut to the HiPo programs. If this is not handled with a level of maturity, it might have negative influence on the people not selected for the HiPo intervention program. There is also a concern over the transparency in the organizations regarding publishing the list with of HiPo intervention (Berke, 2003:19).

It is a fact that not all high performing employees in the organization aspires to be the top leader of the organization; therefore there should be different categories for high potential employees such as high professionals and the article only focused on the top leaders. Berke (2003:21) encourages organizations to rather have a pool of talent and develop pipelines at many organizational levels and that they should feed both laterally and upward. According to Tavis (2018:8) HiPo intervention should also be less about the vital few who are on their way to the top and be about assisting the entire workforce to thrive and contribute to the success of the organization.

In conclusion, the argument for high potential employees being responsible for the success of their organizations is supported by other multiple research sources. The high potential employee attributes indicated by different articles share a common thread and this thread includes cognitive ability, social skills and ambition. Social skills have a direct impact on the ability of a high potential to positively influence team members. Ambition or drive is what enables a high potential employee to keep moving forward and carry the entire team even when challenges exist. The article and other research articles on high potential employees have built a strong case for organization to invest on high potential employees’ intervention programs.

1.2 Discuss the value of a talent management strategy to your selected organisation.
1.2.1 Introduction

In order to adequately address the value of talent management strategy in a familiar organization, talent and talent management will be explained in details to lay the background leading to talent management strategy. It is important to note that before there is a talent management; there must be talent to be managed, so it is from this background that there was a need to explain talent and talent management. The value of talent management strategy will be discussed using six components of talent management.

1.2.2 Talent and talent management literature overview

Fitzgerald (2014:7) defined talent as “those individuals who can make a difference to organizational performance either through their immediate contribution or, in the long term, by demonstrating the highest levels of potential”. It should be understood that talent means different things to different organizations; however, a broader definition like the one above provide an essential guidance to an organization looking to craft its own definition that will be embraced by everyone in that particular organization. This is crucial since talent is something specific to each organization because it is directly linked to the success or failure of an organization. In addition, talent definition should be based to the organizational goals and objectives since talent is responsible for execution of the organization strategy.

According to the talent formula in Figure 1, there are three components that make up talent in an individual and they are competence, commitment and contribution. The talent formula is important because it provides key components which HR Professionals should consider and look for while searching for talent for their organizations in order to acquire the right talent according to the business needs. For organizations to attain overall success, they should harness the skills of individuals in line with business objectives so that the individual can be committed.

Figure 1: The talent formula (Fitzgerald, 2014:8)

Talent is considered to be a primary driver of success for any organization more than capital, because it is responsible for executing the business strategy (Hasan, Khalid, Cheema, Hassan and Afzal. 2014:124). Even in tough economic times, organizations with key talent are able to survive and even thrive because of the commitment and contribution of its talented employees. Fitzgerald (2014:6) also stated that, it will be difficult for organizations to execute their business strategies without having the right people in the right place at the right time with the required skills. For organizations to succeed and be competitive in the ever changing business environment and labor market, it is therefore crucial to focus on talent management. Figure 2 shows all the components of talent management aimed at driving company success through talent.

A comprehensive definition of talent management is given by Fitzgerald (2014:11) as: the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their ‘high potential’ for future or because they are fulfilling business/operation-critical roles. From strategic point of view, talent management is mainly concerned with four activities recruitment, performance management, leadership development and compensation. Talent management strategy should be integrated with the organization strategy to achieve strategic objectives.

The achievement of strategic objectives will only be possible when there is a clear understanding and linkage between strategic goals and the key competences required. The key competences provide a competitive advantage by differentiating an organization from its competitors (Scott-Jackson, 2015:1). According to Nojedeh and Ardabali (2015:5) talent management is used for sourcing, selecting, screening, retention, development, and deployment of the talented workforce with analysis and planning as adhesive ingredient.

1.2.3 Status quo of talent management strategy of a familiar organization

The talent management strategy document of a familiar organization was approved by the Executive Committee on 22 April 2013 for a period 2013-2019. The talent management strategy takes into account both the organization’s strategy and human resources strategy documents which are also for a period 2013-2019, showing alignment of the three important strategy documents. This section will explore the talent management practices of a familiar organization by providing an overview of its talent management strategy document. According to the company policy document a high potential employee is referred to as key talent, meaning “that employee whose skills are critical to the business and who therefore undergo targeted strategies to engage and retain him/her”. The talent management strategy document of a familiar organization includes talent management framework, strategic imperatives and talent management initiatives. Figure 2 provides a summary of a talent management framework of a familiar organization.

Figure 2: Talent management framework (familiar organization)

The talent management framework comprises of six interlinked components and they are: talent definition and leadership model, talent strategy and planning, source and diversify, assess and accelerate development, engage and affiliate, and embed HR excellence platform.

The talent definition and leadership model covers how talent is defined in the organization and behavioral leadership expectations for talent. This component of talent management is primarily concerned with entrenching talent management culture in the organization from top management all the way to line managers. The key input to talent strategy and planning are the strategic business and people management goals. According to the organization, strategic workforce planning and succession planning are the sub-components of talent strategy and planning. In addition, strategic workforce planning identifies future differentiated talent needs based on strategy which enables the closing of gaps through identifying required initiatives. The organization had been using succession planning to ensure a strong succession pipeline for critical and priority positions.

In order to ensure a robust and seamless recruitment process for high potential employees, the organization relies on the source and diversify component of the talent management strategy. The source and diversify is aimed at attracting high potential employees through employer branding which is underpinned by the organizational values. The company had worked to improve its recruitment process by leveraging multi sourcing channels such as: e-recruitment, social networks and recruitment agencies websites to attract high potential employees. The company aims to provide exceptional on-boarding experience for new employees to ensure they quickly settle in on the new roles.

The assess and accelerate development component of talent management strategy includes identifying, reviewing and selection of talent groups based on pre-determined criteria. The development of the identified talent comprises training programmes as well as assignments and exposures to accelerate development of the future leaders in the organization. The company’s intention to retain high potential employees is reinforced by the engage and affiliate component of the talent management strategy and it includes financial and non-financial means.

Information technology (IT) tools are at the core of embedding HR excellence platform to manage an end-to-end talent management program in the company. Both performance management and 360-degree feedback are conducted on HR SAP system. The organization talent management strategy provides a direction on talent acquisition, development, succession planning, performance management and retention high of potential employees as highlighted on the talent management framework above. The talent management strategy of a familiar organization is also supported by human resources policies such as capacity building, strategic workforce planning, recruitment and selection, performance management, on-the job training and bursary policy.

1.2.4 The value of talent management strategy to the familiar organization

Figure 3 shows the components of talent management and these components are crucial to understanding why organizations need to have a talent management strategy for its success and sustainability. The talent management components indicated on Figure 3 below is similar to the ones on talent management framework presented on Figure 2 above from a familiar organization. The components include attraction, retention, succession planning, development, deployment, engagement, and career planning and performance management.

The value of talent management strategy is measured by how it propelled the organization to achieve its business objectives through the acquiring and utilization of talent. The familiar organization has realized positive financial outcomes, business growth and organizational culture has improved through the implementation of the talent management strategy. The value of talent management to a familiar company will be discussed using six components of the talent management in the following paragraphs.

Figure 3: The component parts of talent management (Fitzgerald, 2014:12)
1. Attracting top talent: talent management strategy adds value to the organization by ensuring the organization is able to attract top talent. The attraction of top talent to an organization is closely linked to the image of the organization both externally and internally. The ability of the company to attract top talent through its employer brand reduces recruitment costs. The implementation talent management strategy had resulted in financial performance and growth in the last five years of a familiar company.

2. Talent retention: talent management strategy is also concerned with retaining top talent it attracted in the first place by ensuring a wonderful on-boarding experience for the talent. Furthermore, a well-structured talent management strategy also ensures retention of the existing top talent by ensuring continuous engagement. The ability to retain key talent contributes to lowering recruitment costs and ensures sustained business performance (Fitzgerald, 2014:16).

3. Employee development: employee development is an important aspect of talent management strategy since it is linked to creating talent pipelines to meet future business goals and objectives for the organization. Employees identified for development opportunities are more engaged and motivated to deliver exceptional performance (Bethke-Langenegger, Mahler and Staffelbach, 2011:526).

4. Succession planning: talent management strategy adds value to the organization by ensuring a continuous flow of top talent to fill critical positions enabling the business to operate smoothly even during leadership transitions. The company with strong talent management competencies always have a succession pipeline for critical and priority positions (Bethke-Langenegger et al, 2011:526).

5. Performance management: talent management adds value to the organization by ensuring line managers plan, direct and improve the performance of employees through performance appraisals to achieve strategic objectives of the company. Increased employee and organizational performance can be realised when performance management is implemented as per the company’s talent management strategy. Performance management ensures continuous engagement with the rest of the workforce, fostering communication and transparency. Performance management is used to identify development gaps for each employee and required intervention implemented to close performance gaps (Amos, Ristow, Ristow and Pearse, 2008:286).

6. Career planning: talent management strategy enables organization to identify future human resource requirements in line with business strategy and then seek potential employees and provide them with specialize knowledge and development opportunities.

1.2.5 Conclusion

Effective implementation of talent management strategy could make an organization to realize the impact on financial outcomes, impact on organizational outcomes and impact on human resources outcomes. These three important outcomes cover the major business objectives which could be attained with a well-structured and well executed talent management strategy. The impact on financial outcomes is related to organization’s net profit margin, return on assets and return on equity. The impact on organizational outcomes is related to increased operational excellence, increased productivity, employee satisfaction, employer brand and attractiveness. Talent management strategy has enabled the familiar company to create segmentation of talent pools for more efficient management and better tracking. The familiar company still needs to improve on effective communication and implementation of its talent management strategy.

Question 2

Provide recommendations on the possible steps to acquire and retain high potential employees for your selected organization, with specific reference to the recruitment, selection and rewarding of such employees.

2.1 Introduction

The theory of recruitment, selection and rewarding will be discussed in this section followed by the talent acquisition. The status quo of a familiar company regarding its practices on recruitment, selection and rewarding of high potential employees will also be discussed. The recommendations for acquisition and retention taking into account the current trends in HR will be done.
2.2 Recruitment

Recruitment is about attracting a pool of potential candidates from which the ideal candidate can be selected and this has to be done cost effectively (Amos, Ristow, Ristow and Pearse, 2008:115). Recruitment is an element of talent acquisition and it includes sourcing, screening, interviewing, assessing, selecting, hiring and onboarding. The need for recruitment may arise as a result of a new position created in a company or vacancy due to retirement or resignation. The recruitment process involves preparing job descriptions, specifications, profile, developing advertisement, deciding sources of recruitment, deciding whether inside and outside the company and the process is guided by the company recruitment and selection policy (Armstrong,2006:409).

2.3 Selection

Selection is the process of selecting the most suitable candidate from the pool of candidates recruited. The selection process involves screening and shortlisting applications, interviewing, testing, assessing candidates, offering employment, obtaining references and preparing contracts of employment (Armstrong, 2006:409). The selection process is also guided by the company recruitment and selection policy. The selection process should be rigorous and professional as it determines who join the organization.
2.4 Rewarding/compensation

According Armstrong and Murlins (2007:3) compensation is the remuneration an employee receives for his or her contributions to the organization. Compensation has a direct influence on the quality of people who apply and get hired in the organization. It is also linked to the performance level, motivation and retention of the workforce. Compensation is indeed one of the most critical influences on the quality of work or services delivered and effectiveness of employees.

Organizations are guided by compensation policies to create a system of rewards to meet the needs of the employer and employees (Amos, Ristow, Ristow and Pearse, 2008:310). The total compensation consists of direct compensation and indirect compensation and it emphasizes the importance of considering all aspects of compensation as an integrated. Elements of total compensation include base pay, pay depending on performance, competence or contribution, employee benefits and non-financial rewards are linked together (Armstrong and Murlins, 2007:12).

2.5 Talent acquisition

According to Koltin Consulting Group, talent acquisition can be defined as “a strategic approach to identifying, attracting, and onboarding top talent to efficiently and effectively meet dynamic business needs”. Talent acquisition is strategic, because it is aligned to the organization’s business strategy and it ensures that the organization gain a competitive advantage by ensuring the acquisition of high potential employees. Koltin Consulting Group stated that, “strategic talent acquisition integrates the entire pre-hire stages of the employee lifecycle-from creating the job requisition to onboarding a new hire in a way that engages candidates and drives business outcomes.”

In addition, talent acquisition is a continuous process regardless of the company hiring requirements. The ability to acquire and retain high potential employees has undoubtedly given some organizations a competitive edge over competitors and had ensured continued business success. Organizations expecting to retain high potential employees need to understand the factors impacting the retention of these employees. Letchmiah and Thomas (2017:2) in their research paper highlighted the following factors impacting the retention of high potential employees:
• Organisational culture and values
• Self-actualization
• Leadership
• Communication
• Work-life balance
• Reward and recognition
High potential employees who share the same values and norms like that of the organization are more likely to remain with their employer due to shared common values and ideals. Again, high potential employees are always looking to achieve a certain level of self-actualization and if they are not learning, and advancing themselves to keep up with the competition they will not remain with the organization. Credible and ethical leadership that reflects organizational culture and values is paramount to retaining high potential employees (Letchmiah and Thomas, 2017:2).

In addition to exemplary leadership, effective communication underpinned by openness and honesty where high potential employees are constantly reminded of their positive contribution to the organization can foster commitment of high potential employees and increases their retention. It is also critical that high potential employees are able to achieve a work-life balance. Lastly, high potential employees should be compensated equitably and if there is a room for career advancement they will be retained (Letchmiah and Thomas, 2017:3). According to Greer (2003:33), equitable compensation is important for employee retention and increased retention also occurs with performance-based compensation, pay incentives, and benefits that are valued by employees.
2.6 Status quo of a familiar company on recruitment, selection and rewarding

The familiar company has a recruitment and selection policy which was reviewed in October 2017. The purpose of the recruitment and selection policy is to outline the principles guiding recruitment and selection of candidates, ensure legal compliance and non-discriminatory practices and also to ensure competent and suitable qualified candidates meet current and future organizational staffing needs. The policy clearly states all the recruitment and selection processes and procedures with all the required annexures.

The organization currently uses e-recruitment, recruitment agents, emails and faxes as means of recruitment channels. The recruitment and selection policy applies to both internal and external candidates. The recruitment and selection policy allows for special appointments for internal high potential employees. The special appointment refers to as an executive appointment and is applicable to levels from senior manager to general manager (Level E to B). Under executive appointment the normal recruitment and selection procedures are not followed. The executive appointments had been done for employees who had been identified as key talent and undergone targeted development.

The performance management policy provides guidelines regarding compensation and reward for management employees. Its purpose is to improve organizational performance by aligning individual outputs to organization strategy and business objectives through the use of a balanced scorecard framework. Also to ensure managers and supervisors are held accountable for the performance of their subordinates. The final score on performance management influences the percentage of the annual salary increase and payment amount of incentive bonus to management employees.

Findings regarding recruitment and selection as well as rewarding in a familiar company include not leveraging the power of social networks for recruitment. The selection process relies only on interviews. The company does not have a retention strategy document. The company prefers a blanket percentage for managers’ salary increase, an issue for high performing employees.

2.7 Recommendations for recruitment, selection and rewarding of high potential employees

The recommendations to acquire and retain high potential employees take into account current practices at a familiar company. The recommendations below aim to address the findings related to recruitment, selection and rewarding to bring improvement to the acquisition and retention of high potential employees.

2.7.1 Recommendations for recruiting high potential employees

1. Manage employer brand: the company should increase the efforts to building a stronger employer brand that will attract, motivate and retain both existing and potential employees (Botha, Bussin and de Swardt, 2011:4). The employer brand should communicate the organization’s values, systems, policies and behaviours.

2. Create and manage candidate relationship: since talent acquisition is a proactive and continuous process the organization should create and manage relationships with potential candidates ahead of the position being available in the organization, this can be achieved through online channels, like LinkedIn.

3. Build online talent community: a talent community is a database with active prospective employees that have been grouped into different segments which are targeted to receive emails with job openings. Online talent communities provide a talent pipeline for the organization to draw from when the position becomes open. The talent community should be used to keep prospective employees engaged and also to create a better image of the organization amongst targeted group.

4. Prepare a detailed recruitment plan: a comprehensive recruitment plan should be prepared to ensure quality of the recruitment process and minimize recruitment costs. Update job descriptions to reflect new requirements as well.

2.7.2 Recommendations for selecting high potential employees

1. Assembly an inclusive interviewing panel: this is to ensure any biasness is removed from the interview process and ensure a thorough interview to confirm the overall suitability of the candidate takes place.

2. Use selection tests: for high potential employees assessments should include: ability test, aptitude test, work sample and psychological test. The assessments are to ensure only the best candidate gets the top job.

3. Take a long view: the long term view selection is to ensure that the new employee will fit with organizational values and culture and also check for the motivation and potential to develop further in the organization.

2.7.3 Recommendations for rewarding high potential employees

1. Conduct salary survey: conduct regular salary surveys to know what the market is offering for a similar position and offer a competitive salary package to increase retention of the high potential employee.

2. Compensation: compensate high potential employees equitable to ensure their retention.

3. Performance based salary increase: annual salary increase for high potential should be based on individual performance and avoid blanket salary increase percentage.

4. Offer non-monetary rewards: the non-financial rewards include providing individual development, providing learning opportunities in terms projects and assignments, promotion opportunities and growth in the company. This has a positive effect on employee satisfaction and retention.

2.8 Conclusion

The financial success of many organizations and their sustainability in the business environment is linked to the acquisition, development and retaining of high potential employees. In light of the fact that the success and competitiveness of organizations is dependent on the availability of high potential employees within the top leadership ranks, it is more important that clear guidelines are in place to assist organizations when it comes to recruitment, selection and rewarding of high potential employees. It has been found that some organizations use retention bonuses as much as 15% to keep their high potential employees. The familiar organization does not have a retention strategy and this has affected its ability to do counter-offers and had let high employees leave the organization as a result.

Question 3

Discuss the importance and benefits of pursuing an integrated, strategic human resource development approach for your selected organisation.

3.1 Introduction

This section focuses on the theory of strategic human resource development (SHRD) and also explores the current SHRD practices at a familiar company. The importance and benefits of pursuing SHRD will be stated and briefly discussed. The recommendations for pursuing integrated SHRD will also take place and conclusion will be done.

3.2 Strategic human resource development literature overview

Strategic human resource development (SHRD) can be defined as a coherent, vertically aligned and horizontally integrated set of learning and development activities which contribute to the achievement of strategic goals. Whereas human resource development (HRD) is defined as a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving individual and teamwork processes, and organizational systems (Garavan and Carbery, 2014:24).

According to Garavan and Carbery (2014:24) SHRD “is concerned with the long-term development of human resources in organizations; it is a shaper of business strategy in addition to its role in strategy implementation; it emphasizes learning for the purpose of performance; it utilizes a multiplicity of strategies to facilitate performance, learning and change in individuals and organizations; and it is continuously aligned with the strategic goals of the organization”. This quote provides all the major characteristics of SHRD which separates it from HRD.

Furthermore, SHRD adds value to the organization by enhancing core competences in individuals which are required for business performance and is also responsible for developing skills and competencies which will differentiate the organization from its competitors. According to Garavan and Carbery (2014:31) SHRD facilitates a culture of learning; a commitment to performance improvement and a capacity of strategic engagement. Rothwell and Kazanas (2003:349) argued that SHRD should prepare employees through development to enable them to move with the organization as it changes and grow. This means individual employees become change agents for group learning and organizational learning.

3.3 Status quo of a familiar organization regarding integrated SHRD

The familiar company has a human resource development (HRD) department which is responsible for all the training and development initiatives. The outcome of both performance management and 360-degree feedback provide inputs on the annual training and development plans. Each employee submits annual individual development plan (IDP) which include compliance training and development needs approved by the line manager. The HRD department receives an approved annual training budget from all other departments. It is responsible for tracking actual completed training and reporting on a monthly basis. It can be said that the organization is currently on ad hoc SHRD and systematic SHRD because it has limited involvement when it comes to shaping the organization strategy. The organization is focused on training more than strategically developing employees in line with organizational goals and objectives. However, some employee development initiatives such Chief Executive nurturing programme has gain momentum over the years. Its success is not clearly documented to provide the evidence it has had in the developing and accelerating career progress of the employees.

3.4 Importance and benefits of pursuing an integrated SHRD approach

The importance of SHRD is to assist organizations to improve performance and profitability by emphasizing the utilization of human capital knowledge, skills and abilities to meet business goals (Alagaraja, 2013:74). Another important consideration for SHRD implementation is that it can lead to employee retention by ensuring employees develop core competencies required by the organization for career progression (Alagaraja, 2013:90).

The organization and its employees benefits from the implementation of SHRD because it provides alignment of training and development initiatives with the company’s mission and strategic goals as a result the skills, knowledge, learning ability and motivation of employees is enhanced by the continuous growth within the organization. In addition, the importance of practicing SHRD is that it supports the employees with skills and knowledge that will be required by the organization in the near future and this is so because it is aligned to the organizational goals and always scanning the business environment. (Garavan, Costine and Heraty, 1995:6).

3.5 Recommendations for pursuing strategic human resource development

1. Provide customised and personalized learning interventions: the learning intervention should be to address issues raised during performance management.

2. Utilize new technology to encourage self-managed learning: utilization of e-learning as example where employees can learn specific topics as per their skills gaps and interests.

3. Ensure employees are aware of development opportunities: effective and open communication, use company email and social networks for wide coverage.

4. Ensure managers and peers are supportive of learning: encouraged formal and informal mentorship programmes.

5. Develop the capabilities for employees to apply learning: assign employees to projects where they can apply the new skills.

3.6 Conclusion

The overall objective of pursuing SHRD is to ensure that both the organizational strategy and business objectives are integrated to ensure continuous development of human resources to achieve organizational success. The SHRD also ensures the company continuously scans the business environment to proactively respond to the changes in the market and technological advances and leverage the use of human capital. The need to align development initiatives to organizational mission and objectives ensuring the organization has at all times skills, knowledge and capacity to meet business objectives is at the heart and mind of SHRD. SHRD requires all stakeholders such as top management, line managers and employees play an active in the development of human capital and organization development.

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