Somatology Nutrition One

Somatology Nutrition One (NUT101) Assignment
Trace Elements

Name and surname: Ragmah MobaraStudent Number: 217167381
Due Date: 7th November 2018
Declaration:
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Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1. Introduction PAGEREF _Toc529127586 h 21.1 Types of trace elements include: PAGEREF _Toc529127587 h 31.1.1 Iron PAGEREF _Toc529127588 h 31.1.2 Iodine PAGEREF _Toc529127589 h 31.1.3 Copper PAGEREF _Toc529127590 h 31.1.4 Chromium PAGEREF _Toc529127591 h 31.1.5 Selenium PAGEREF _Toc529127592 h 41.1.6 Manganese PAGEREF _Toc529127593 h 41.1.7 Molybdenum PAGEREF _Toc529127594 h 41.2 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc529127595 h 42. References PAGEREF _Toc529127596 h 5
1. IntroductionTrace elements are termed as the micro-minerals that are found in living tissue and are required in very small amounts. Your body needs these minerals (generally less than 20 milligrams per day) to support functions such as the normal growth and development, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, and hormone production. Deficiency or excess of any of one of these elements could lead to functional or structural abnormalities.

The following assignment will firstly (i) define the trace element by looking at their function, then (ii) list foods sources and lastly (iii) states the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for both males and females, for each trace element.

1.1 Types of trace elements include: 1.1.1 Iron(i) Iron is the most abundant trace element in the body which plays an essential role in the growth process, healing, and immune function and for the synthesis of neurotransmitters- the chemical messengers in your brain. 
In haemoglobin, iron functions to transport oxygen from lungs to the parts of the body and in myoglobin iron assists with the storage of oxygen in muscles.

(ii) Food sources which are rich in iron include foods such as poultry, fish, spinach, beans and fortified cereals.

(iii) The recommended daily allowance RDA for iron – Adult females need 18 milligrams of iron, while adult males need 8 milligrams of iron daily. 
1.1.2 Iodine(i) It is critical for the thyroid to use iodine to produce hormones. These hormones help regulate metabolism and keep your heart, nerves and intestines functioning properly. Deficiency can cause enlargement of thyroid gland known as Goitre and can cause brain damage in new-born babies.

(ii) Foods such as seafood, eggs, milk are good sources of iodine.

(iii) The recommended daily allowance for iodine is 150 micrograms.

1.1.3 Copper(i) Copper is essential for the absorption of iron. It is also vital for infant growth, brain development, the immune system and the formation of strong bones, connective tissue and red blood cells.

(ii) Found in foods such as shellfish, chocolate, beans and whole-grain cereals.

(iii) The recommended daily allowance- Adult men and women need 900 micrograms of copper per day.

1.1.4 Chromium(i) Chromium is essential for normal insulin functioning to maintain blood sugar levels, as well as for the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein and fats.

(ii) Foods rich in chromium include liver, whole grains, cheese and nuts.

(iii) The recommended Daily allowance- Adult men should need 30 to 35 micrograms of chromium, while adult women need 20 to 25 micrograms.

1.1.5 Selenium(i) Selenium is an important component of antioxidant enzyme which may prevent some cancers. It is also important for functioning of the thyroid gland, immune and reproductive systems.

(ii) Foods such as meat, nuts, cereals and seafood are sources of selenium
(iii) The RDA – Adults need 55 micrograms of selenium.

1.1.6 Manganese(I) Manganese is necessary for development of bones and energy metabolism.

(ii) Foods such as nuts, whole grains and beans are good sources.

(iii) The RDA – Adult women need 1.8 milligrams of manganese a day and adult men need 2.3 milligrams of manganese daily.

1.1.7 Molybdenum
(i) Activates enzymes and enables normal cell functioning.

(ii) Foods such as milk, legumes, whole-grain breads and nuts are included.

(iii) The RDA -Both adult men and women need 45 micrograms.

1.2 ConclusionOur bodies require a very small amount (less than 20 milligrams) of trace elements. Without the required micro-minerals our body is unable to function properly. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) depends upon factors such as body weight, age and gender. Your needs for these trace elements are easily met by eating a variety of foods from the different food groups.

2. References
Bhattacharya, P.T., Misra, S.R. and Hussain, M. n.d. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review. Scientifica. 2016. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940574/ Accessed 05 November 2018.
Chandler, S., 2018. List if Trace Minerals. Healthy Eating SF Gate. Available at: HYPERLINK “https://healthyeating.sfgate.com/list-trace-minerals-4893.html” https://healthyeating.sfgate.com/list-trace-minerals-4893.html Accessed November 5,2018
Trace Minerals in Humans. n.d. Available at: https://healthyeating.sfgate.com/trace-minerals-humans-5967.html Accessed 05 November 2018
Trace Elements | A Level Notes. n.d. Available at: https://alevelnotes.com/notes/chemistry/elements-of-life/trace-elements Accessed 05 November 2018