TERM PAPER Project submitted as a partial fulfillment for the Degree Of BAMA Clinical Psychology

TERM PAPER Project submitted as a partial fulfillment for the Degree Of BAMA Clinical Psychology (Dual) Submitted By Supervised By Khushi Dua Dr Neelam Pandey BAMA Clinical Psychology Assistant Professor 3rdSemester AIPS A042317092 AMITY INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGY AND ALLIED SCIENCES Amity University, Noida Uttar Pradesh 2018 CERTIFICATE AMITY INSTITUE OF PSYCHOLOGY AND ALLIED SCIENCES AMITY UNIVERSITY, NOIDA This is to certify that KHUSHI DUA a student of BA MA clinical psychology (dual) 3rd semester (ENROLMENT NO 10423417092, BATCH 2017-2021) of amity university of psychology and allied sciences (AIPS), AUUP has successfully completed her report. The present project is submitted to in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree BA MA clinical psychology. This project under my guidance entitled effect of parental involvement on decision making ability is an original piece of research work and no part of this project has been submitted for any other degree of any other university to the best of our knowledge. DATE (SUPERVISER) PROF (DR) ABHA SINGH Dr Neelam Pandey DIRECTOR ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, AIPS AIPS, AMITY UNIVERISITY AMITY UNIVERISTY, NOIDA ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is in particular that I am acknowledging my sincere feelings towards my mentors who graciously gave me their time and expertise. They have provided me with the valuable guidance, sustained efforts and friendly approach. It would have been difficult to achieve the result in such a short span of time without their help. I deem it my duty to record my gratitude towards the project supervisor Dr Neelam Pandey and my PL Dr Anu Tetotia who devoted her precious time to interact, guide and gave me the right approach to accomplish the task and also helped me to enhance my knowledge and understanding of the project. INTRODUCTION There are 4 types of parenting style and each of it contribute to different decision making ability in youth. Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive Uninvolved Authoritarian Parenting Authoritarian parents are often thought of as disciplinarians. They have very strict discipline and they use punishment to force their demands on children Communication is mostly one way from parent to child. Rules usually are not explained. Parents with this style are typically less nurturing. Expectations are very high and the flixibilty is very less Children have to do what parents say . Parents dont except no as an answer. Permissive Parenting Permissive or Indulgent parents mostly let their children do what they want, and offer limited guidance or direction. They are more like friends than parents. There is no strictness. They have no set of rules of guidlines and mostly let children figure problems out on their own. Communication is open but these parents let children decide for themselves rather than giving direction. There are no or very few expectations There is over friendly environment Uninvolved Parenting Uninvolved parents give children a lot of freedom and generally stay out of their way. Some parents may make a conscious decision to parent in this way, while others are less interested in parenting or unsure of what to do. No particular discipline style is utilized. An uninvolved parent lets a child mostly do what he wants, probably out of a lack of information or caring. Communication is limited. This group of parents offers little nurturing. There are few or no expectations of children. Democractic parenting Children are treated as equal Communication is both ways Children are allowed to express their view point If either parents or children have different decision , they then arrive to a mutual decision that is agreed by both Both parents and children make efforts to be in continuous contact Across cultures, parenting styles fall into three categories based on levels of demandingness and responsiveness. This literature review examines three categories of parenting styles and their influence on childrens behavior, risk-taking, mental health, and academic achievement. Controlling parents are high on demandingness and low on responsiveness (Baumrind, 1991 Kim, in press). Guiding parents are high on demandingness and high on responsiveness (Baumrind, 1991 Kim, in press). Permitting parents are low on demandingness and low on responsiveness ( Baumrind, 1991 Kim, in press). Based on positive and negative effects of each parenting style, this review concludes that the guiding parenting style is the most effective for children. Implications for parents include recognizing the need to provide both support and structure for children Family characteristics, such as the quality of parent-child relationships, communication, and parental monitoring, are reliably associated with the decision making ability among youth AIM To find the relationship between parental involvement and decision making ability LITERATURE REVIEW Parents are the major socializing agent for their children. They may not be conscious of their parenting style but they have a great influence on every days life of a child continuously .Parent react differently to different situation, attaching different meaning to them and consequently contrasting with one another in their response to children. A number of researches have developed tolls to measure effect of parental behaviour on decision making ability. These have been reviewed in this section. Elliott, Huizinga, (2012), Multiple problem youth Delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems. The list of delinquent activities include refusal to adhere to the parental demands, alcohol use, drug addiction, stealing, property destruction, theft, and rape. It is a fact that opinion regarding the causes of delinquent behaviour vary, but it is generally agreed that delinquent behaviour in adolescence years is more common than people of other age Talib, Abdullah, and Mansor (2011) Relationship between parenting style and childrens behavior problems. He argue that the family of a child is a socio-cultural-economic arrangement that has a significant influence on not only the behavior of the children, but also on the development of their characters. Therefore, ignorance in their parenting can lead them towards unwanted damaging effects that ultimately create behavioral problems in children D.S. Shaw, K. Keenan, (2011) Evidence suggests that the parenting context begins to shape pathways to adolescent risk-taking very early in development. They explain development of antisocial behaviour as the result of both individual deficits in the capacity to regulate emotions and behaviours (stemming from genetically-linked vulnerabilities previously described) and a caregiving environment that exacerbates these deficits by not providing the appropriate level of developmental guidance in important socialization processes. M. J. Fine, Cutts and Mosley, (2010) Facilitating Parent Child Relationship for Creativity .studies found that high aspiration and high expectation on the part of parental behaviour leads to high academic achievement of their children but it was found in case of indirect parental involvement in childrens academic activities, personal freedom and encouragement to the children and direct involvement in childrens activities is found to be associated with low academic achievement. K. Keenan and J.I.Vondra, (2010) Developmental precursors of externalizing behaviour Ages 1 to 3. Developmental Psychology. Parents Contingent and sensitive responding in infancy and early childhood provides a foundation for caregivers to facilitate development of self-regulatory skills.. Mounts and Steinberg, (2009) Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents are authoritative (that is- when parents are involved, make demands, and supervise while demonstrating acceptance and warmth) are less swayed by peer pressure to misbehaviour than are adolescents whose parents are overly permissive or authoritarian. Kerr and Stattin , (2009) What parents know, how they know it and several forms of adolescent adjustment. Research also shows that teens are more willing to tell their parents about their whereabouts and activities if they have a strong parent-child bond. The presence of strong bonds with parents and other family members moderates the negative influence of peer drug use and delinquency Nuttal et.al ,(2008) A Study of Influence of Social Background, Educational Achievement and Parental Attitudes on the Creative Behaviour. They found that creativity and parental acceptance are highly associated to each other. They have shown that parental encouragement, motivation, democratic discipline leads to the development of creativity in the students. Nijhof and Engels (2007) Parenting styles, coping strategies and the expression of homesickness. They have a firm belief that authoritative parenting style plays an influential role in the development of healthy adolescent psychologically and socially. This is particularly because authoritative parenting style helps the children to develop higher level of self-reliance, self-esteem and ability to employ effective coping strategies, while developing positive self-image F.H.Wilson, W.Edward, (2007) Parental Involvement with their Children. Their co. have revealed that academic achievement of children is closely associated with parental involvement. They conducted study on various types of children as normal and special. W.Edward, (2006) have shown very high correlation between parental involvement and childrens academic achievement and has revealed that parental academic interest helps in predicting grade level. M. B. Karnes, et al, (2005) Factors Associated with the Underachievement of Intellectual Gifted Children. They found that the parents of high achievers are in the habit of giving love, affection and respect to their children as compared to the parents of low achievers. High control, dominance and possessiveness associated with love, acceptance and high nurturance are found positively related to high achievement F.H. Wilson , C. W. Su and G. P. Tiwari, (2005) parental involvement and low achievement in some other studies explored that rejection, ignorance, punishment, restrictive behaviour and severe attitude of parent result in low achievement of their children . J. Santosh, (2004) Parental Attitude and Child Rearing Practices as Related to Academic Underachievement. His study divulged that negative reinforcement of behaviour, more immediate punishment, high maternal control influence child behaviour and logically approved authority along with warmth ness always leads to high achievement. V. M. Juffer, (2004) Socialization of Children with Varying Levels of originality An Analysis of Parents Child Interaction .Their research have revealed that parental rejection , firm control on the part of mother, directive behaviour of parents are negative correlates of childs creativity. J. T. Hower and K. J. Edwards, (2004) parental involvement in childs creativity have revealed that accepting, lax autonomous attitude, inductive and power assertive parental behaviour had negative effect on childs creativity S. Wendy et. al (2003) Perceived Parental characteristics, Locus of Control Orientation and Behavioural Correlates of Locus of Control .They have also revealed that parental behaviour has significant effect on the childs locus of control. T. A. Chandler and F. M. Wolf, (2003) Parental involvement on perosanlity They found that parents positive statements exert positive influence on the childrens personality traits. G. A. Growe, (2003) Parental Behaviour and Self Esteem in Children .His research shows that Self Esteem of children is also greatly influenced by the parental behaviour and attitude and explored that level of self esteem is significantly affected by the three dimensions of parental behaviour like rejection, autonomy and indulgence. At the same time he reported that boys self esteem was more significantly influenced by the parental behaviour than that of girls. Jaffee et al Taylor, Iacono and Mc Gue, (2002) effect of genetic on decision making ability They highlighted that the central role of genetics plays a major factor contributing to the most troubling and costly outcomes of adolescent risk-taking, including violence, criminal activity and substance use disorders . However, there is mounting evidence that genetic influences on a variety of problem outcomes reflect a complex interplay between inherited and environmental risk with genetic risk leading to pathological behaviour for some youth only when the primary socializing environment also is adverse. Hawkins, Catalano and Miller , (2001) Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence There are three broad categories of family influence that has been studied in the literature on adolescent risk-taking the quality of family interactions, parenting styles and practices and family modeling and socialization of risky behaviours. One of the most robust predictors of alcoholism risk is a positive family history with the biological offspring of alcoholics being approximately three to five times more likely to develop alcoholism during their lifetime and more likely to begin using alcohol and drugs in adolescence than the biological offspring of non-alcoholics L. Steinberg, S.D. Lamborn, N. Darling, N.S.Mounts and S.M. Dornbusch, (2001). Over time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents Several studies done by them has shown that adolescents who are raised in homes characterized by authoritative parenting (that is- parenting that is warm but firm) are more mature and less likely to engage in risk-taking behaviour. Fleming, Kim, Harachi and Catalano, (2000) Family Processes for Children in Early Elementary School as Predictors of Early Smoking Initiation. Research studies that assess these aspects of effective parenting report reliable negative associations between them and a broad array of high risk behaviours, including aggressive, hostile, oppositional and delinquent behaviour use and abuse of alcohol and illicit substances initiation of sex, failure to practice safe sex and involvement in a pregnancy at an earlier age. D. Baumrind, (2000) Theoretically, disengaged parenting raises a risk for adolescent problem behaviour because the combination of (1) a lack of emotional bonding or attachment to parents and (2) a lack of supervision and consistent behavioural control fails to provide a clear communication of parents values and also undermines motivation for adolescents to attend and comply, thus weakening adolescents internalization of parental values and socialization. J.A. Martin, E.E. Maccoby and C.N. Jacklin, (2000) Mothers responsiveness to interactive bidding inventory for African adolescents.Perceptual and Motor Skills Highly supportive and responsive caregiving, particularly when combined with clear and consistent discipline, also facilitates the gradual increase in childrens self-regulatory capacities and decision-making abilities DISCUSSION The parenting style construct commonly used in psychology today is based on the work ofDiana Baumrind, a developmental psychologist. Baumrind noticed that preschoolers exhibited three different types of behavior. Parents have huge impact on childs behaviour and decision making ability consciously or unconsciously. It is found that children who have authoritative parents are unable to make decisions in their life as all the decisions in childhood were made by their parents. Also, authoritative parnts are very strict with high demands. So children are forced to do bad things at time to fulfil their demands For example parents who force their children academically may give extreme pressure to students in such cases students cant make good decision and cheat in exams to score well and are unable to study due to the excess pressure and thinking that what will happen if they score less in their exams The balance of parental authority and child independence in the choices that are made about childrens own activities is potentially important for developmental outcomes. Parental restrictions can curtail risky behavior and promote investments in child human capital, but children develop self-confidence by taking independent actions and judgment by experiencing their own mistakes. A gradual transfer of decision power from parents to children is believed by child development experts to be better for children than premature independence or prolonged subservience CONCLUSION On the basis of review of researches, concerning the parental involvement and their childrens personality traits, there are following conslusions. 1. The researches conducted in this area are insufficient to yield any general result. 2. Academic involvement of parents in their childrens activities and its impact on their adolescents, risk-taking behaviour, decision making ability and other specific personality traits. 3. There are certain areas which effect parental involvement on decision making ability such as academic achievement, success in life, habits such as honesty, substance abuse , choice of peer group etc THEREFORE EFFECTIVE PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT ( neither too much nor too less of involvement) IS NECESSARY FOR CHILDREN TO MAKE GOOD DECISION IN THEIR LIFE. REFERENCES C.B. Fleming, H. Kim, T.W. Harachi and R.F. Catalano, (2000). Family Processes for Children in Early Elementary School as Predictors of Early Smoking Initiation.Journal of Adolescent Health, (30(3), 184-189) D. Baumrind, Current Patterns of Parental Authority, Developmental Psychology, 411 (Part2) (2003) D.S. Shaw, K. Keenan and J.I.Vondra,(2011). Developmental precursors of externalizing behaviour Ages 1 to 3. Developmental Psychology, (30, 355-364). Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., Menard, S. (2012). Multiple problem youth Delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems. New York Springer. H.D. Chilcoat and J.C. Anthony, (2009). Impact of parent monitoring on initiation of drug use through late childhood.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (35(1), 91100) E. V. Nuttal (2008) Creativity in Boys A Study of Influence of Social Background, Educational Achievement and Parental Attitudes on the Creative Behaviour of Ten Years Old Boys, Diss. Abs. Int. (31 1 P., 231) F. H. Wilson, (2007) Parental Involvement with their Children Education on the Junior High School Levels in Urban Schools and its relationship to Students Achievement to Parental Status, to Distance of Home from School and to Parent Sex, Dis. Abs. Int. (375, 3542-3543) G. A. Growe, (2003) Parental Behaviour and Self Esteem in Children, Psychological Reports, (Vol. 47 (2) 499-602) J. A. Martin, E.E. Maccoby and C.N. Jacklin, (2010).Mothers responsiveness to interactive bidding inventory for African adolescents.Perceptual and Motor Skills, (76, 1001-1008.) J.D. Hawkins, R.F. Catalano and J.Y. Miller, (2001). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, (112, 64-105) J. T. Hower and K. J. Edwards, (2004) Journal of Genetic Psychology, (135 1, 2332) M. B. Karnes, et al., Factors Associated with the Underachievement of Intellectual Gifted Children, Exceptional Child, (27, 167-175) M. Kerr and H. Stattin, (2009). What parents know, how they know it and several forms of adolescent adjustment Further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Developmental Psychology, (36(3), 366-380.) M. J. Fine, (2010) Facilitating Parent Child Relationship for Creativity, Gifted Child Quarterly, (26,179-184) Nijhof, K. S., C., R., Engels, M. E. (2007). Parenting styles, coping strategies and the expression of homesickness. Journal of Adolescence, (30(5), 709-720). Steinberg, S.D. Lamborn, N. Darling, N.S.Mounts and S.M. Dornbusch, (2001). Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents Santosh Juneja (2004) Parental Attitude and Child Rearing Practices as Related to Academic Underachievement, Diss. Abs. Int., (31, P. 6402) Stephen Nowicki and Wendy Sehgal, (2003) Perceived Parental characteristics, Locus of Control Orientation and Behavioural Correlates of Locus of Control, Developmental Psychology (10 1 , 33- 37) S. Jaffee, A. Caspi, T.E. Moffitt, K.A. Dodge, M. Rutter, (2002) A. Taylor, et al, Nature Nurture Genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems, Development and Psychopathology, (17, 67-84) Talib, M. B. A., Abdullah, R., Mansor, M. (2011). Relationship between parenting style and childrens behavior problems. Asian Social Science, (7(12), p195) T. A. Chandler and F. M. Wolf, (2003) Parental Correlates of Locus of Control in Fifth Graders, Merrill Palmer Quarterly, (26 3, 183- 195) V. M. Juffer, (2004) Socialization of Children with Varying Levels of originality An Analysis of Parents Child Interaction, Diss. Abs. Int. (30 3, p. 1253) W. Edward, (2002) Relationship between Selected Family Variables and Student Achievement in School, Diss, abs. Int., (381, P. 40) W. R. Morrrow, R. C. Wilson, (2005) Family Relations of Bright, High Achieving and under achieving High School Boys , Child Dev, (35,p-1041-1049) 1aO3arKNBc bHRwH4IglB6HD (tz
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