The prevalent use of English as an international means of communication is in constant expansion under the phenomenon of globalization .This fact is reflected in different fields where English is considered as a second language. “English has become the second language of everybody,” said Mark Warschauer, a professor of education and informatics at the University of California, Irvine. “It’s gotten to the point where almost in any part of the world to be educated means to know English.”that is the importance of knowing the English language resides on knowing its framework knowledge and using it. Therefore it is essential to know that English is taught and mainly present in Algerian educational institutions as a foreign language to students whose first language is not English at all. Then, the reforms brought by the National Charter (1976) expressed explicitly an awareness that English was to be learned as a means to facilitate communication with the world, to have access to modern sciences and technologies, and to encourage creativity in its universal dimensions. Consequently , in order to reach specific objectives and cover the lacks of students in Algerian Secondary schools while having the English course , there should be a well established teaching methodology used .
According to our experience as teachers of English at secondary schools, the majority of the learners find tremendous difficulties to understand , communicate and write in English even after years of study . Besides that ,general dissatisfaction with English learning and teaching in Algeria ,particularly at the secondary schools has led us to wonder whether those lacks and the absence of awareness of the necessity of English learning ,due to its indisputable status all over the world, are related to the teaching methodology . As a matter of fact the fulcrum of this paper is to propose Eclecticism as one of the new pedagogical approaches for teaching and learning of the English language as an attempt to encourage independent and autonomous learning as well as decreasing the lacks to the maximum .
It is widely recognized that there is no one ‘best method’ or no single ‘most efficient way’ of teaching languages, nor is there any single theory that can account for such a complex process as a second language teaching. In response to this growing demand on English as Foreign language (EFL) recently, both academically and professionally, EFL instructors have embarked on a search for the most efficient and effective approach to enhancing student skills . Although the eclectic approach was proposed as a reaction to the profusion of teaching methods in the 1970s and 1980s which were often inflexibile and unconsistent when applying it , The idea of choosing from different methods to suit for one’s teaching purposes and situations is not a new one. For example, Memorandum on the Teaching of Modern Language published in 1929 on the basis of a British study by Incorporated Association of Assistant Masters in Secondary Schools recommended the eclectic “compromise method” as a solution to the language teaching debate (Stern, 1983). In the eclectic method of teaching and learning teachers can easily adapt to the needs of teaching so that teaching objectives or goals can be achieved (Rabu,2012). This eclectic approach to EFL classrooms is premised on practicality to bring desirable changes. This method should be used naturally by the teacher suppressing the previous rigid methods of teaching .
Eclecticism has been derived from the verb root “elect”. To elect means to choose and pick up the good ideas, concepts and principles from various approaches and blending them together to make a complete approach . Thus , Eclecticism is of great pedagogical benefit . The Present research is to investigate this approach and how its procedures influence the language learning process. It is no longer adequate that language learners merely be passive . What is required, for full participation in an increasingly integrated world, is a deeper understanding and a comprehensive arsenal of meta-skills which will assist learners with acquisition and interaction concluding that the eclectic approach is superior to traditional ones when it comes to improving the basic competencies and developing performance .
Research Aims and Objectives
This study endeavors mainly to reveal how relevant learning English is in this globalized age and the effects of implementing various approaches , methods and strategies to enhance students’ achievements when learning this foreign language. It aims to make a deep scrutiny of EFL classrooms having the case of classrooms in Tahirri Abderrahmne’Secondary School in Djelfa determining the extent of incorporating Ecleticism to master English primarily at the level Secondary Schools.As well as it intends to show the role of the teacher in facilitating the lessons using the appropriate method that lies with both the learning aims and the learning process to benefit the learners at different stages. Moreover, this study seeks to emphasise that eclectic approach is best suitable to the needs and environments of today’s EFL learners in Algeria .
Statement of the problem
The history of English teaching has been characterised by a search for more effective ways of teaching it . As such , Eclecticism is of profound importance ,the eclectic method fuses elements from traditional and cognitive methods to deliver on the strengths of both. However, There may be frequent switching in the curriculum and it can lack disciplined learning. Studies reveal that the use of various teaching methodologies have positive effects on the academic outcomes of students in comparison to conventional teaching method and also proved that conventional teaching method is not effective (Sood, 2013; Agboghorom, 2014; Adeyemo and Babajide, 2014; Udo and Udofia, 2014). Therefore, as researchers ,we will attempt to investigate the effects of eclectic learning approach on students’performance in English at secondary level. We are hopeful that the findings of this study will be highly beneficial for English teachers as they will be able to improve their teaching outcomes by adopting the eclectic approach as a teaching method. This query entails reference to relevant concerns :
1. What are the effects of eclectic and traditional learning approaches comparatively on EFL students at the Algerian ‘secondary school ?
2. To what extent teachers of EFL classrooms can change the attitudes of students towards learning English via the use of Eclecticism approach ?
3.Is there a significant difference in the outcomes of students after implementing the eclectic approach ?
4. Are teachers of EFL classes ready to apply Eclecticism when circumstances do not allow for the adoption of a single method in order to serve the needs ,lacks and interests of students ?
Structure of the study
In seeking answers to these questions, this paper throughout three chapters will attempt to determine the effectiveness of Eclecticism while teaching . In the first chapter , we will briefly and critically review relevant research, analyze various traditional methodologies .In what follows , there will be a hint about the current development of post method era in English language teaching (ELT) in Algeria ,that is Eclecticism .In the second chapter , we will discuss the theoretical framework of the proposed eclectic approach to teaching EFL classrooms . In the final chapter ,we will illustrate how can we use eclecticism in the Algerian Secondary schools so that students’ levels become more advanced and the teacher enjoys the freedom to absorb the best techniques of all the well-known methods and approaches. In conclusion, suggestions will be proposed which may provide insight into the use, and validity of the ecletic approach in the EFL classrooms.