THE USE OF NUMBERED HEAD TOGETHER (NHT) TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING GRAMMAR AT 7th GRADE STUDENTS
(A Descriptive Study at Al-Mubarok Islamic Boarding School Bawu Jepara) in Academic Years 2018/2019
1. Background of the Study
Language is important for our life. As we know, there are many languages in this world. Surely, every country has different languages. Not only country, but also every region has different languages, for example is Indonesia. As we know, there are more than a thousand languages in Indonesia. It shows that language is needed very much to do communication with other people. Then, for doing communication with other people around the world, we need a language that can be understood by people, as the example is English language. English is a necessity in this century. By English, we can communicate with other people around the world and can make relations with them, such as making cooperation, conducting student exchange, etc.
Next, English is much important for us. Crystal (2003:172) stated that English is influenced for the people who learn it and make it as their second or foreign language. Crystal (2003:3) also stated that the people who learn and apply English language will pride in their achievements. In Indonesia English is the foreign language which must be learnt by students. Most of students, especially the students in Jepara, they think that English is the difficult and the boring subject, especially in learning grammar. It can be caused of a method used by teacher is not fun. We know that grammar is one of the English basic components. Wang (2010:78) asserted:
“grammar is the most important part in a language system. A complete language system cannot be constituted without grammar. Thus, we can imagine that grammar is just like a frame of a house. Without this framework, good materials and building blocks cannot constitute a solid house”.
Harmer (2001:12) stated that grammar rule is extremely difficult. It describes the way people can change the words in their sentences according to their needs. However, if grammar is applied frivolously, then the sentences will become messy and difficult to understand by others and can lead to misunderstanding.
Based on that description, it can be inferred that grammar is important because it can divide some situations that is able to make the reader or listener understand easily. It is also important especially in English learning teaching to make students understand well about grammar. Then, it can be meant that an English teacher has to use a fun method in teaching grammar.
There are many approaches, methods and techniques can be applied in teaching English. They are like communicative approach, humanistic approach, cooperative learning technique, innovative teaching models, scientific approach, cooperative language learning, etc. that can make the situation in a class be more fun and happy.
Cooperative language learning is a good approach that can be applied in teaching learning process, especially in English learning process. It is able to make the situation in a class be more active and fun, so that, the students do not feel bored to study and learn. It is proved with a statement of Dr. Fasawang Pattanapichet, who is a lecturer at King Monkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok. Pattanapichet (n.d.:61) stated:
“Cooperative learning approach which can be used to reduce students’ language learning anxiety in class — an obstacle to language proficiency development… where the students get into groups and each of the individual members performs his or her task contributing to the success of the whole group”.
While Laguador (2014:46) also punctuated “…cooperative learning approach may provide better opportunity for learners to grow and achieve the course objectives as well as the student-outcomes”. Related to the description above, it is meant that cooperative learning is one of good approaches that can be applied to teach students during teaching learning process in a class. Because of the explanation above, the researcher wants to know the application of Numbered Head Together technique at an English course that is used by tutor in grammar teaching learning process in the class.
In this study, the researcher will focus on Numbered Head Together (NHT). Numbered Head Together is one of techniques that included in cooperative language learning method. Fauziati (2008:174) wrote in her book that Numbered Head Together is a simple technique to use in teaching English. It can also be used to teach grammar for students. Zhang (2010:81) described in his journal, that cooperative language learning is a method that divides students in small groups to get and share what they have gotten as the learning goals. According to Kagan’s study in Mahmoud (2014:616), stated that cooperative learning is able to make learners to have higher achievements because they do learning in group, and implicitly, that Numbered Head Together is a technique that can help students to have higher achievements.
In this research, the researcher wants to know and describes the situation of a class in English learning activities by using Numbered Head Together (NHT) to fulfill the final project of English Education Department at UNISNU Jepara. Then, the researcher is interested in it and it is entitled ‘The Use of Numbered Head Together (NHT) Technique in Teaching Grammar at 7th Grade Students (A Descriptive Study at Al-Mubarok Islamic Boarding School Bawu Jepara) in Academic Years 2018/2019.
2. Statement of the Problem
In this research, the researcher gets some issues and it all is questioned in the question list below:
a. How is the implementation of Numbered Head Together technique in teaching grammar?
b. What are the advantages and the disadvantages of the Numbered Head Together in teaching grammar?
3. Objective of the Study
Based on the questions in the statement of the problem above, it shows some objectives of the study, and the researcher wants to:
a. Know the use of Numbered Head Together Technique in teaching grammar.
b. Know the advantages and the disadvantages of the Numbered Head Together in teaching grammar.
4. Scope of the Study
The scopes of the study of the researcher are listed below:
a. The researcher pays attention by observing the NHT technique that is applied by an English tutor at the course.
b. The study is focused on describing the technique that is applied at the course, just the way it is.
c. The researcher describes the students’ reactions, feelings and impressions after using the numbered head together technique.
5. Previous Researches
In this part the researcher reviews, shows, and explains about several researches that have been written by other researchers. The first previous study is the study that written by Anggraini (2011). In her thesis, she chose a classroom action research as her study, and it was entitled “Improving Students’ Speaking Skill Using Numbered Head Together (A Classroom Action Research at the Eighth of SMP N 16 Surakarta in Academic Year 2010/2011” that was conducted at SMP N 16 Surakarta. Based on her thesis, she focused on students’ speaking skill and intended to improve speaking elements, such as the students’ fluency and accuracy. Then, specifically, she tried to improve the students in micro and macro of speaking, like the way the students produced a sound, the way the students’ movements by their mouth, their pronunciations, and the vocabularies they used. In her thesis, she wrote that in the first meeting, she was doing observation. Based on her observation, she told that the students could not speak fluently, it was caused the students were less vocabulary, and they did not understand about grammar yet. Then, she applied Numbered Head Together to improve the speaking skill of the students and finally the students got improvement.
The second previous study is from the journal of Martino, Istianah, and Ariani (2015), and it was entitled “The Effect of Using Numbered Heads Together Technique on Reading Comprehension Achievement of the Eight Grade Students at SMP Islam Gumukmas”. They, the researchers used a quasi-experimental research as the design of the research. As the application, the researchers taught in two classes, then applied Numbered Head Together in one class, and another class without the technique. The reason why the researchers used technique of Numbered Head Together was the English teacher at that school never applied it during learning process. It was caused the teacher just used lecturing technique, and it was not very effective for the students. It just made the students was not active and made the students spent a long time to read and understand the meaning. Then, the researchers came and applied Numbered Head Together. As the result, the class that was given the Numbered Head Together technique was more active and effective than the class that was not given the technique. It means that the Numbered Head Together technique gave a good impact.
The third previous study is a research journal by Rahman, Armis, and Zulkarnain (2017) entitled “Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Pendekatan Struktural Number Head Together (NHT) untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Matematika Siswa Kelas VIII.2 SMP Muhammadiyah 2 Pekanbaru”. The researchers used classroom action research in which the researcher took 16 students as the sample. Before applying NHT technique, the students’ mathematic scores were under standard, and after applying the technique, the students’ scores got increase and exceeded the standard. As the conclusion, it means that the Numbered Head Together technique was effective to use in mathematic learning process.
The next previous study was written by Sanjaya (2017), that was conducted at SMP N 5 Baturiti in academic years 2015/2016. He chose the numbered head together as his technique to improve the seventh grade students’ vocabulary. In his research writing, he told that the English students’ scores were under standard, around 4.63. Because of that, he used the numbered head together technique to improve the students’ vocabulary. He gave three tests for the students, pretest, post-test 1, and post-test 2. Before giving the three tests, the researcher introduced about the treatment of Numbered Head Together, firstly. After that, he conducted the pretest. The result of the pretest is not too bad, in which, 10% of the students got improvement. The researcher applied the technique again as the post-test 1. As the result of the post-test 1, the students’ scores were getting improvement again, around 85% students got good scores. After that, he used Number Head Together again as the post-test 2. In this test 90% students score improvement, which the students passed the target scores. From that description, it means that Numbered Head Together was able to increase the students’ scores and to improve the students’ vocabulary.
The last previous study is a research journal written by Syah, Marhadi, and Alim (2016). In their written research, the researchers told that
“Penerapan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Numbered Head Together dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar IPS siswa kelas IV SD Negeri 140 Pekanbaru, di mana pada skor dasar nilai rata-rata hasil belajar siswa hanya 60,61. Kemudian pada siklus kedua meningkat menjadi 66,67, terjadi peningkatan sebesar 9,82% dan pada siklus kedua meningkat menjadi 75,24, terjadi peningkatan sebesar 23,93%”.
Based on that description above, it is meant that the Number Head Together technique was accepted by the students at that school. Not only that, but also the technique was also able to increase the students’ achievement on subject of the social studies.
Then, here, the researcher will use the Numbered Head Together technique that will be applied by English tutor in teaching grammar. The unique of this research is that the object of this research will be the students at the Islamic boarding school of Al Mubarok. As we now, that most of Islamic boarding school students have many activities in their daily life at the boarding. That is why they need a fun method during English course learning process.
6. Theoretical Review
For the theoretical review, it is divided into several subheadings that have correlation to the topic, and it is described in the explanation below:
“Grammar is a theory of language, of how language is put together and how it works. More particularly, it is the study of wordings” Gerot and Wignell (1995:2). It means that grammar is the theory or the way English learners arrange a phrase or a sentence. Janet Emig in Hartwell (1985:105), stated that the students learn English because their English teacher teach them and the students just understand the English related to the materials have been taught by their English teacher. It can be meant that if there is no English subject, the students will not study and learn English and they will also not recognize about English grammar.
According to Merriam-Webster (2018), grammar is defined: “the study of the classes of words, their inflections… and their functions and relations in the sentence”. From the definition above, it means that grammar is an English basic that have to be known and be understood by English learners.
6.2 Teaching Grammar
In teaching grammar, it cannot be left by the way an English teacher teaches students. It can be things that make the teacher is good, the way the teacher shares and explains materials, the way the teacher manage class situation or the students, and etc. Because of that, here, the researcher explains about the things that the English teacher should do in teaching grammar to make the students will have understood it well.
6.2.1. How to Be a Good Teacher
The first thing the teacher should know is, the way to make the students feel interested in the teacher. However, the teacher is the main reason of the students’ understandings. The teacher has to make the students feel comfortable. According to Harmer (2001:1-6), there are several tips for English teacher.
First, the English teacher must love his/her job. By loving his/her job means that the teacher always tries to make the situation in the class is interesting. However, the interested class can influence the students to feel interested too. Then, as we know that most students are confused about grammar. So, by making the students’ interesting, it means that the students will feel interested in learning grammar, so that, the can understand well and get good achievements.
Second, the teacher also has to be able to entertain the students. Then, beside the students get some information of grammar, the students also feel enjoy with the lesson. Here, the teacher may give music during teaching learning process. The important thing is that the students understand the grammar and do not feel bored.
Third, the teacher should use a fun teaching method during teaching learning process. It can make students be happier and love to learn English, especially learning grammar. Fourth, the teacher should give the students some motivations. When the teacher motivates the students, it means that there is a good relationship among the teacher and the students.
Fifth, the teacher has to give chances for the students to ask about the materials or grammar that have been explained by the teacher. Letting the students to ask about the materials can make them more understand. After that, after giving the asking time for the students, the next step has to do is, the teacher has to give feedback for the students. It can be appreciation, gift, or just a thankful for the students. It is because the feedback is able to make the students keep spirit to learn.
6.2.2. Some Rules for Teaching Grammar
In teaching, surely a teacher always tries to get innovation to teach his/her students, and also does not want to see students feel bored during learning process, especially in grammar teaching learning. Mostly, students are bored when they are learning grammar. It can be caused by there is no students’ interest, class situation, or teacher’s ways in teaching. Here there are some rules for teaching grammar.
Based on a website (Some Rules, n.d.), it shares that a teacher has to teach grammar to facilitate students in improving their language skills. The ways to facilitate students are by providing the right and good condition for grammar learning, interpreting students’ needs and styles, telling them that English grammar system is not wholly different from their mother tongue system, and giving them opportunities to put and use the grammar use to some communicative use.
Then, talking about grammar, teachers should know the way to teach grammar. There are two rule types in teaching grammar, implicit type and explicit type. Ellis stated in Bentsen (2017:20):
“The aim of explicit teaching is “to abandon the aim of teaching grammar for immediate communicative use and replace it with a lesser aim – helping learners to develop metalinguistic understanding of grammatical structures”. The aim of implicit grammar teaching is “to embed the teaching of grammar into task based approach where attention to grammatical form arises naturally out of the attempt to engage in meaning-focused communication”.
From that statements the researcher can get the point that students get benefits more from explicit than implicit because it can help students to understand structures of grammar.
6.3 Numbered Head Technique
Numbered Head Together is one of techniques that included in cooperative language learning. Here, the researcher explains about Numbered Head Together specifically.
6.3.1. How to Apply
Because it is included in cooperative learning approach, The Numbered Head Together is surely applied by team or group. The application is not too difficult. According to written journal of Pattanapichet (n.d.:64), he explained that students are divided into some groups, in which every group consists of four members. Then, every group is given four numbers, 1, 2, 3, and 4, where the numbers are shared to all members in groups. After that, teacher tells questions to all groups that have to be answered by groups. Next, teacher calls out a number “two” then students with number two are asked to answer question.
6.3.2. Advantages and Disadvantages
18.104.22.168. Advantages of Numbered Head Together Technique
NHT technique has some advantages for students. Related to Purnomo (2012:39) in his writing, he mentioned that there are five advantages by applying NHT technique in students’ learning process.
First, students’ academic achievement can get improvement. It includes the four English skills, listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and also grammar and vocabulary power. Second, students can have good engagement. Third, all students are in one, so that it can decrease students’ difference of achiever because clever students have to share their answers to their team who is shy or weak one, so that, all students are equal and have same participations. Fourth, NHT technique is able to give students motivation. It is caused NHT is a fun technique that can make students compete each other, team by team by being helped by their teammates. Fifth, NHT can encourage students to get information much more dynamic in peer.
22.214.171.124. Disadvantages of Numbered Head Together Technique
There are not only advantages, but also there are several disadvantages of Numbered Head Together technique. Related to Rayanto (2017:114):
“first, if there were homogenous group, so it would be unfair for the group contained of weak students. Second, the discussion process could run smoothly if there were students just simply copy the work of smart students without having an adequate understanding”.
7. Method of Research
7.1 Setting of the Research
This study will be conducted by the researcher at Al-Mubarok Islamic Boarding School on Jl. Tahunan – Batealit KM. 04 Batealit Jepara in academic years 2018/2019.
7.2 Subject of the Research
In conducting this descriptive study, the researcher is interested in seventh grader who are ‘santriwan’ and ‘santriwati’ at Al-Mubarok Islamic Boarding School in which there are thirty students in a class.
7.3 Research Design
This study uses Qualitative Descriptive Study as the research design. Here, the researcher will describe what will happen in a class including the situation, students’ condition and activities in the class during learning process by applying NHT technique.
According to Creswell in Williams (2007:67), he asserted that qualitative research is a natural research which researchers involve themselves in actual occurrence. Then researchers can describe what happened at that time, and develop a level of detail from the actual experiences actually.
Then, about descriptive study, Last stated in Grimes and Schulz (2002:145) that it only focuses in describing the existing distribution of variables, without hypotheses. Next, Isaac and Michael in Dulock (1993:154) wrote that descriptive research is a research that is used to depict the characteristic of persons or group, situations, or phenomenon occur through observing, describing, and documenting situation aspects naturally.
Related to the explanation above, it is meant that here, the researcher will describe everything in a class that will happen during learning process just the way it will be.
7.4 Technique of Data Collection
Collecting data is one of the important things in doing research. The data that will have been collected by the researcher should be valid. Mubarok (2015:49-51) alleged that in gathering data, researchers can use several strategies that are suitable, to help them to collect the data because if they do not use the suitable strategies, they will get invalid data. Then, Mubarok also stated that there are two kinds in collecting data, test and non-test.
There are many techniques to collect data. Dulock (1993:155) shared that the tools that commonly used to collect data are such as interviews, observations, questionnaires, rating scales, checklists, and instrument for measuring physiological variables. In this part, the researcher will collect data by using triangulation technique. Triangulation is the combination of three techniques of data collection, observation, interview, and documentation.
In doing observation, the researcher will use participant observation. Mubarok (2015:61) wrote that participant observation is a research technique where researchers involve in a class, so that, researcher will get information more about the activities and know the meaning of the activities.
From the explanation above the researcher will make instruments for doing observation such as checklist. Then, the researcher will observe tutor and students in a class during teaching learning activities twice in two meetings. For the instrument, it can be looked at appendix 1 and 2.
In doing interview, the researcher will use structured interview, in which the researcher will be an interviewer to get information from subject by asking some questions that will have been prepared by the researcher before interviewing (Mubarok, 2015:59). In this part, the researcher will prepare some questions as the instrument of doing interview. In this part, the researcher will interview tutor and some students that will be chosen by the researcher by choosing students who have multiple number of five such as 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 in which the researcher will interview once in a meeting. For the instrument, it can be looked at appendix 3 and 4.
In collecting data, the researcher will use also documentation as the technique. Mubarok (2015:63): “It is a kind of writing which is collected and stored that can be used when needed, as well as images and photos. Document can be in the form of written text, pictures, and others”.
From the explanation above, the researcher will try to find out data by taking pictures and videos or others. Next, the researcher will try to get some documents such as lesson plan of tutor and students’ attendance list. Then, the researcher will use it to correlate with interview and observation data to help the researcher gets valid data. Here, the researcher will do documentation twice in two weeks.
7.5 Technique of Data Analysis
Data analysis technique is an importing thing in research. Kuntjojo (2009:52) asserted “Pada penelitian dengan pendekatan kualitatif, fokus masalah penelitian menuntut peneliti melakukan pengkajian secara sistematik, mendalam, dan bermakna”. The explanation means that researchers have to focus themselves on research cases that investigated. Then, it has to be researched deeply by researchers, so researchers are able to analyze data easily. By analyzing data easily, it can make researchers conclude good result to continue for the next step.
From the description above, the researcher will use three techniques in analyzing data. They are like data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification, based on Miles and Huberman (1994:10-12) below.
7.5.1. Data Reduction
Data reduction means summarizing, choosing primer data, focusing on important things, then, getting the main point of collected data. Then, data that have been reduced by researcher will give clear representation, and researcher can do research easily.
From the explanation above, the researcher will select collected data from triangulation results of interview, observation, and documentation, then, simplify it all.
7.5.2. Data Display
Data display is a group on information that is arranged, organized, and it gives points of collected data.
From the description above, in this part, the researcher will organize collected data that will have been simplified in data reduction by making simple description and explanation. Then, the researcher will be able to find out the primary point of collected data.
7.5.3. Conclusion Drawing and Verification
The third analysis technique is conclusion drawing and verification. Miles and Huberman :
“conclusion drawing, in our view, is only half of a Gemini configuration. Conclusions are also verified as the analyst proceeds. Verification may be as brief as a fleeting second thought crossing the analyst’s mind during writing, with a short excursion back to the field note, or it may be thorough and elaborate”.
In this phase, the researcher will make a conclusion by data that will be processed through data reduction and data display. This conclusion can be changed if needed, but if the result has valid proofs, the change is not needed, and it will be credible conclusion.
8. Significance of the Study
By doing research in this study, the researcher has some expectations, it all are:
8.1 For the Researcher
The researcher can know the use, the advantages and the disadvantages of the Numbered Head Technique. Then, the researcher is able to apply the technique in the real life during the researcher handles an English learning process of learners.
8.2 For the Tutor
The tutor can understand and be able to apply the numbered head together technique during students’ or English learners’ learning process.
8.3 For the Reader
The reader can get a new knowledge and benefits of this study result, so that the reader can use this result as the new resource and information that can be shared to others.
9. Timeline of Research
1 2 3 4 5 6
Pre-Research Asking permission to chief of Al-Mubarok Islamic Boarding School.
Making an appointment with English course tutor.
Research Collecting Data Observing
10. Thesis Organization
For the thesis organization, this study is written systemically. Here it is the system of the thesis organization as follows:
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter introduces some basics of research such as background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, scope of the study, significance of the study, and thesis organization. This chapter is as the base why the researcher chooses the technique and the study.
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter shows two subheadings, previous researches and theoretical review. The previous researches discuss about the researches that had been already conducted by other researchers with their relations. In this subheading the researcher gives the difference or the superiority between the study of the researcher and previous researchers. Then, for the theoretical review, here, the researcher describes the theory that is used as the anvil of research analysis that is relevant to the topic that is discussed.
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD
There are several subheadings in this chapter, they are setting of the research, subject of the research, research design, technique of data collection, technique of data analysis, research procedure, and research timeline.
CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter explains about the analysis of the data that have been collected by the researcher, and presents the data that have been analyzed related to the statements of the problem that have been decided by the researcher.
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
This part the researcher concludes all the parts of the chapters, started from the first to the fourth chapter, and it all have correlation to conclude.