They are to ensure that the organization performs to the expectation and achieves its purpose and goals. For doing this, managers are to perform certain roles and duties, which include organizing, controlling, directing, coordinating, and leading. Managers may be the entrepreneurs, sometimes they may not be, but however, at all the times they are to balance the available resources of the organization for the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. For the managers to carry out these duties, they have to possess certain skills which include inter-personal skill, people skill, conceptual skill, and technical skill etc.
A manager is often defined as someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other employees so that the organizational goals can be accomplished. It is not about personal achievement but helping others do their job. Managers may also have additional work duties which are not related to coordinating the work of others.
A manager is a job title which is used in organizations to denote an employee who has certain responsibilities to lead some functions or departments and/or employees. He has a level in the organizational structure which integrates functions and departments for implementation of the management decisions and for the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. He is a person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individual employees, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. He is normally assigned a particular level in the organizational chart and usually has diverse responsibilities for the employees and the functions. The job description of a manager varies from organization to organization. Usually, the manager is responsible for a department and has direct reporting employees for whom he has leadership responsibility.
Though manager is a job title, still in an organization one cannot identify a manager necessarily by what an employee is called or by his job title. In some organizations, there is a liberal use of the title ‘manager’ in an apparent attempt to enhance the status and morale of the employees. As a result, there are a number of employees whose job title include the term manager but who, in reality, are not performing various activities of a manager. On the other hand, there are many employees whose job title does not include the term manager (for example, chief inspector, chief metallurgist, controller of stores and purchase, production controller, and company secretary etc.) but who, in terms of the activities undertake activities of a manager and have the authority and responsibility which they exercise are those of a manager.
The title of manager is used in different organization for employees who have functions to perform which are heterogeneous in nature, but usually, a manager is a person, who fulfills the elemental managerial functions (planning, organizing, motivating and controlling) and is the superior of given human team. He is a person who first of all is responsible for the realization of the management process. In particular, a manager is a person who makes plans and decisions, organizes, supervises and controls human, finance and information resources. In fact, he is part of the profession whose essence is the management which is the art of reaching goals by properly employing and using the finance, material and human resources in order to achieve goals of the whole organization or its given part. He has the administrative position and has the comprehensive knowledge necessary to lead people and manage the organization, in order to achieve the optimal realization of his tasks in the confined environment of the organization. He is also the specialist, who is able to find the solution in complicated situations, who is not afraid of taking risks, who can draw the visions of the future, who can formulate the strategy of welcome changes, and who knows how to use the resources for the optimal realization of organizational visions.
Manager in view of his position or knowledge is responsible for work contribution, which physically influences organizational achievement capability. Most of the managers are also supervisors, but not all of them, because there are many managers, who in spite of being superiors to other employees do not have in any way impact on organizational achievement capability.
In addition to being able to coordinate work more effectively, managers are better able to (i) communicate performance expectations and feedback to subordinates, (ii) prepare subordinate employees and themselves for transitions to higher organizational levels or different functions, (iii) forecast how different employees would perform if promoted or moved into a new function, (iv) ensure that training and development programs are targeted to fit the needs of employees as they change positions, (v) diagnose and resolve confusion regarding roles, responsibilities, and priorities of the employees, (vi) fulfill the role of sponsors of change, (vii) act as a coach for employees working under them.
Managers can be categorized into many groups depending on the undertaken criterion. The most often referred criterion is the position of manager in the organizational structure. From this point of view, one can distinguish (i) managers at top level who are generally responsible for planning and strategic decisions, (ii) middle level managers who are normally taking the operating decisions, passing them to the front line managers and controlling implementation of these decisions, and (iii) front-line managers who are generally supervisors and are responsible for the implementation of the decisions already taken and for the direct control of tasks realization process.
Managers can be divided on the criterion which is based on the managers’ sphere of activity and job description. As per this, managers can be (i) functional managers who are responsible for one kind of activity in the organization (e.g. production, maintenance, marketing, selling or finance), or (ii) overall managers who are controlling complicated economic unit, like branch/regional offices or separate departments and are responsible for complete economic activity of these economic units (i.e. production, marketing, selling and finance). Further based on the criterion of the decision making process, managers can be categorized as (i) assistant personnel having their job which includes recording, gathering, and storage of information, (ii) specialists who are responsible for transformation and preparation of organization or its division’s activity variants, and (iii) decision-makers who choose aims and ways of reaching the organizational objectives. Managers can also be divided giving consideration to another criterion such as characteristic features, ways of behavior, demographic features or preferred managerial style. Based on another criterion which takes into account managers’ approach to committed and administrated resources, managers can be (i) entrepreneurs such as contractors, who establish a business, take risk and lead it as per their requirements, and (ii) intrapreneurs who have proper knowledge to administrate the organization and reveal initiative and inventiveness in their activity, which they make use of to develop somebody else’s organization. Such managers have methods of acting (and also knowledge) which are often similar to the principles of entrepreneurs’ activities but the potential risks and emotional loadings are here considerably lower because intrapreneurs do not lead the organization at their own risk and account.