Water is really important for developing nations such as Malaysia. Water is the basic resources to maintain daily life and support the economic growth since many industries used water as the raw material of their products. People use lots of water for drinking, cooking and washing but even more for showering and do the laundry. The water footprint is an indicator that shows the direct or indirect water use by the consumers and also the producers. Water footprint also can be defined as the total volumes of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business. This part of the research will examine and discuss seven ways to save water which include rainwater harvesting system, modification on water appliances ( efficient water tap model, shower head, toilet, washing machines), improvement of the household lifestyle and lastly the uses of grey water.
Water wastage can be greatly reduced through the rainwater harvesting system. It involves the collection, storage, and distribution of rainwater from the roof, for use inside and outside the home. For example, installing artificial rain barrel (simplest rainwater harvesting system) can capture and store the rainwater for domestic uses. Therefore, the installation of rain harvesting system can reduce the water usage from the supplied and save the bill.
Water usage efficiency can also be improved by some modification of water appliances. The water tap can be modified by installing the water tap aerators or any others efficient fixture. Water tap aerators also knew as flow regulator is a small attachment that either fits onto the end of the tap or can be inserted into the tap. It is a water saving devices that are able to control the amounts of water that flows through the tap without affecting water pressure as the water is mixed with the air. Example of the efficient fixture is the altered nozzle which is widely used in western countries. Both aerators and altered nozzle can save up to 80% of water and increase the water efficiency significantly.
Next, it is suggested to replace the old shower head with a water efficient model as old shower head consumes about 15 to 20 L/min while the new model consumes only 8L/min. The advantages of installing a low flow showerhead are able to decrease water consumption more than 40% and providing significant end-of-year savings due to monthly water bill being cut down. In addition, water can be saved by modifying the toilet. The modifications include the installation of both dual-flush toilet technology and the toilet-tank displacement device. Dual-flush toilet offers a choice of two flush volumes either large (6L) or small (3L) which saving water compared to the previous toilet. On the other hand, the toilet-tank displacement device can save water because it has the same flush effect or pressure but with a lower volume of water. It uses the height of the water in the toilet-tank to produce the same pressure.
Besides that, using a front load washing machine can save water compared to top load washing machine since it uses the lower volume of water for the same capacity of laundry. It is also advised that to wash the clothes when the load is full because it can save for about 10 L of water for each wash.
Another suitable method to save water is to improve the user’s behavior. In general, users should realize that it is important to save the water. For example, the users are recommended to take a shorter shower (8 minutes) instead of the bath. They need to practice good habits such as turn off the water tap while brushing their teeth and also when soaping and scrubbing the dishes. They also should regularly check for any leaking in the toilet and faucets.
Grey water is gently used water from bathroom sinks, bathtubs and also washing machines. Grey water is also used water without toxic chemicals that can be used for any others suitable purposes. For example, the water after rinsing the fruits can be used for flush and also water the plant.
In conclusion, these seven ways to reduce water usage is very effective since it can be easily applied in daily life and the most suitable method for Malaysian citizen. There are many other alternatives that can greatly reduce water usage and cuts the water bill. So, it is important for each of us to realize the importance of saving water which can majorly affect our life. Therefore, in order to sustain our daily basis reducing water usage to save water is vital.